online solution: The video you have just watched was made prior to the passag

The video you have just watched was made prior to the passage of…  The video you have just watched was made prior to the passage of IDEA 2004 and ADA.  Identify one scene that would be illegal after the passage of these two laws.   Support your position. Defined: A convulsive disorder characterized by seizures, i.e. a loss of control over specific muscles, in which there is disturbed electrical activity in the brain.1. Damaged brain cells “overload;” they become overexcited and give off too much electricity.2. The result of this temporary overload is a seizure which causes some of the body’s activities to go awry.3. There is frequently a sudden loss or disturbance of consciousness associated with the motor activityB. Involvement of the brain: There are 2 basic ways in which this electrical disturbance occurs in the brain.3. Generalized: Involves the whole brain.a. The cause of such seizures is generally genetics.4. Partial: These can occur in two ways.a. The electrical disturbance involves only part of the brain.b. The electrical disturbance starts in one part of the brain and then spreads to other parts.C. Types 1. Generalized Tonic-Clonic (Grand Mal) … whole brain involveda. Most common generalized seizure, affecting about 80% of those with epilepsy.b. Typically they will last 1 to 3 minutesc. Characterized by a loss of consciousness and postural control; muscle rigidity followed by jerking and difficulty with breathing; loss of bowel and bladder control; accumulation of saliva in the mouth.  (1) Aura: Seizure activity sometimes begins with a brief sensation in the stomach or head, such as a sinking or rising feeling, a buzzing sound, an unpleasant order, or spots before the eyes.(a) Individuals can train themselves to recognize the start of seizure activity before it spreads to other parts of the brain,(b) Thereby allowing them to take protective measures to prevent injury during the seizure itselfd. Medication is most successful in controlling this type of seizure.e. HO: “Procedure for Handling a Grand Mal Seizure”f. HO: “Discussing Seizures with Children2. Absence (pronounced abb-sawnce) (Petit Mal) … whole braina. Especially prevalent in children 4-14 yrsb. Many outgrow this epilepsy at puberty and never have another seizure, but some develop other types of seizures.c. Most commonly characterized by a brief (7-10 second) lapse of consciousness with staring or eye blinking or upward rolling of the eyes.(1) May have as many as 50 to 100 per day.(2) Often medication can reduce the number of seizures or eliminate them altogether.d. Management: Make sure the child did not miss any key parts of the lesson.3. Atonic or “Drop Attack” … whole brain … less commona. The child experiences a sudden loss of muscle tone which makes them collapse and fall.  b. Consciousness is lost for a few seconds up to one minute … typically about 15 secc. Because the force of the fall can cause injuries, the child may wear a protective helmet, particularly when playing outside.d. Management: (1) Help child up and examine for injuries.(2) Reassure(3) Allow them to sit quietly until fully recovered.4. Simple partial … starts in one part of the braina. The child maintains consciousness.b. They typically last less than 2 minutesc. Motor Seizures: This type of seizure can affect movement(1) Jerking movements can begin in the fingers, toes or other body part (stiffening of a body part)(2) These may spread, affecting the whole of one side of the body or to both sides of the bodyd. Sensory Seizures: They may affect one’s senses, causing things to look, sound, taste, smell or feel different.(1) They may smell, taste or see things that aren’t there.(2) Feel as if they are floating in spacee. Autonomic Seizures: (1) Examples include nausea; change in heart rate, sweating; goose bumpsf. Psychic Seizures: Change how people think, feel or experience things(1) Sudden feelings of fear; depression, happiness with no outside reason.  (2) Problems with memory, garbled speech, understanding written or spoken language5. Complex partial ( also called psychomotor or temporal lobe epilepsy) … Starts in one part of the brain and spreads to other partsa. Example: Consists of 3 brief phases(1) Person stops ongoing activity and blank stare(2) Followed by a pattern of repetitious, automatic, purposeless behavior, lasting for 1-2 minutes(a) May engage in lip smacking; picking at clothes; buttoning and unbuttoning; pick object up and down; try to take off clothes.(b) May run or appear afraid.(c) May struggle if restrained(3) Person returns to consciousness with a short period of disorientation and confusion or even feeling frightened.b. Management:(1) If the child appears dazed and oblivious of his surroundings and is away from his seat,(a) Speak softly and calmly to him.(b) Gently guide him back to his seat.(c) If the child resists, make sure he is not in jeopardy.(2) If the child is seated(a) Ignore the automatic behavior.(b) Have him stay in the room until full awareness returns.  (3) Help re-orient the child if he seems confused afterwards.D. Causes: In about 70% of the cases, the cause of epilepsy can’t be identified. 1. In general the cause is some form of insult to the brain.a. Includes head injury; infections such as meningitis or encephalitis; brain tumorsb. At or before birth conditions include insufficient oxygen to the brain, bleeding in the brain or abnormal blood vessels.2. When epilepsy occurs within an extended family, there may be a genetic link.a. In most cases of epilepsy, a specific pattern of inheritance cannot be determined.3. Absence epilepsy tends to run in familiesa. Most likely form of epilepsy to be inherited4. Fewer than 15 in 100 children born to parents with epilepsy will inherit epilepsy.E. Incident rate: 1 in 26 people in US, will develop epilepsy at some point in their life, with rate of new cases of epilepsy most likely to occur between ages 0 – 1yr.1. Seizures in children are usually associated with a. Developmental disorders such as cerebral palsy, autism, and Down Syndromeb. Head traumac. Genetic factors, i.e. Inheritedd. Infectious diseases such as AIDS and meningitisF. Treatment1. Medication: Includes such drugs a Tegretol, Keppra and Lamictal.2. Ketogenic Diet: Typically recommended for children whose seizures are not responding well to medications.  a. A strict high fat, low carbohydrate diet which tricks the body into burning fat instead of glucose for energy.b. Because the diet is so high in fat, calories are strictly limited.(1) The child is not allowed to eat anything … even cookie crumbs … that isn’t on the diet OR (2) That hasn’t been pre-measured and pre-weighed.c. Effectiveness of Ketogenic Diet(1) Over ½ of children using this diet, have at least a 50% reduction in the number of their seizures.(2) 10-15% become seizure free.3. Brain Surgery: This video tells the story of an 11 yr old boy’s experience with brain surgery to help control his epilepsy. While this is an old video, the procedure is essentially still the same. viewing the video, go to the activity Epilepsy. You may want to preview the activity to help focus you attention while watching the video.G. Special considerations1. In general, no special programming for such children is required.a. Teachers must be aware that seizures of any type may interfere with the child’s attention or the continuity of education.(1) May have to repeat questions, instructions…(2) Frequent major convulsions may prevent even a bright child from achieving at the usual rate.2. There are certain events that tend to precipitate or enhance seizures: Undue emotional stress, illness, poor diet, lack of sleep, blinking lights, and high heat.   3. If an undiagnosed child has a seizure: Record the length of a child’s seizure and the type of activity the child was engaged in before the seizure.4. If a child is diagnosed as having seizures, the teacher should know the type of medication and its possible side effects.a. It is not uncommon for the medication dosage to require adjustment. Indicative signs include(1) Excessive drowsiness … too much medication(2) Total change of character … too much medication(3) Vomiting or diarrhea … too much medication(4) Onset of seizures … not enough medication(5) Hyperactivity, aggressiveness, uncooperativeness … adverse reaction to the drug   Health Science Science NursingECE 235

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