online solution: Can you do a summary of this article please? 200 min- 210 m

Can you do a summary of this article please? 200 min- 210 max RESEARCH PROBLEMAnesthesia providers are frequently tasked with examining, diagnosing, and prescribing pharmacologic therapy for a variety of issues. Pediatric care comes with its own set of issues, such as the requirement to swiftly determine weight-based medicine doses. The goal of this review paper was to identify and explain themes linked to pediatric anesthesia-related drug mistakes. The review’s other objectives included identifying and comparing alternative error reduction techniques. In the United States, medication mistakes cause an estimated 1.3 million injuries each year, with one fatality each day. The greater risk in children is owing to their metabolism’s underdevelopment, which might interfere with drug clearance. Improper dose, incorrect medicine, syringe change, wrong patient, and wrong dosing interval were all common themes observed to contribute to medication mistakes. To develop ways to assist prevent medication errors, it’s necessary to first identify the most prevalent perioperative drug errors. The goal of this study was to conduct a narrative literature review to determine the incidence, nature, and result of anesthetic drug mistakes among pediatric patients during the last decade. We also wanted to present successful error reduction tactics documented in the literature in our review. Our research questions were: What are the main types of medication errors in the pediatric population aged  1 day to 18 years in the perioperative period?What mitigation strategies have had the best outcomes that can be implemented in our current anesthetic pediatric practice? DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH PROCESSWe conducted a narrative literature review on the topic of perioperative medication errors and reduction strategies in the pediatric population by anesthesia providers. Multiple search engines were used to find articles pertaining to this topic. We considered relevant articles published between January 1, 2009, and July 15, 2019. The perioperative period includes the surgical procedure and recovery and continues until the patient resumes his or her usual activities. The surgical experience can be segregated into three phases: (1) preoperative, (2) intraoperative, and (3) postoperative. The word ‘perioperative’ is used to encompass all three phases. Study inclusion criteria consisted of articles printed in the English language, full-text publications, with medication errors and medication error reduction strategies. Exclusion criteria included studies not published in English. not a full-text publication, did not take place in the perioperative period, did not involve the pediatric population of our specified age range, and did not involve anesthesia providers. During the perioperative period, we detected search keywords related to pediatric medication mistakes and reduction measures. We manually searched the references from the most suitable publications after our first search yielded 17 articles that matched the inclusion criteria. Articles that did not take place during the perioperative period or did not have anything to do with pediatric anesthesia were not included. After excluding these publications, our search yielded 18 results. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Checklist was used to rate each article. Each article was graded on a scale of one to ten questions. The article was deemed sufficient if it received a score of 5 out of 10. Following the score of each item, one was deleted, leaving 17 articles. Finally, the articles were analyzed and categorized into several topics. RESULTS OF THE STUDY After a review of the articles in our study, 70%  (12 of 17 articles) reported medication errors involving incorrect dosing, 35% (6/17) were related to incorrect medication, 29% (5/17) were related to syringe swap, 17% (3/17) were inappropriate medication labeling, and 6% (1/17) were related to a known allergen. An 11-year-old child died when his anesthetic provider gave him a concentrated 1-mL ampule of phenylephrine instead of the normal weight-based dosage of ondansetron. The most common reason for the syringe switch was having medicine with identical labeling. As a result of the phenylephrine injection, this patient had a deadly cardiac arrhythmia. Two vials of medicine were mistaken for each other in this case, and the patient died as a result. High levels of stress, weariness, and distractions have been identified as contributing causes to drug mistakes. Medication error reduction techniques have been shown to minimize medication mistakes and increase patient safety in the juvenile population. The numerous medication error reduction techniques that were applied in each research were also included in our outcome measures. According to the findings of the literature study, uniform labeling is the most successful technique for reducing errors, followed by prefilled syringes. Two-person checks, using a drug library/electronic-based references, using quality improvement and safety analytics, using pharmacy support, using a computer check system, articles educating staff, using a standardized anesthesia workspace, using a zero-tolerance philosophy, and using a checklist were among the other error reduction strategies.  A conference in which practitioners who have not followed the institution’s policy for drug administration can present an explanation in order to assist the team to comprehend the challenges involved is typically regarded as part of a zero-tolerance mentality. These sessions are usually held with the chief practitioner and allow the chief to identify any potentially dangerous behaviors by the practitioner engaged in the event, which might result in repercussions. The purpose of this attitude is to ensure the safety of both patients and practitioners. The National Academy of Medicine (previously known as the Institute of Medicine) is looking for ways to avoid drug mistakes. Although anesthesia is one of the safest professions, research shows that significant drug mistake rates still persist. More than 80% of scenarios that result in patient damage are due to medication mistakes. The addition of pharmacy support, a checklist, 2-person verification, and forcing functions to double-check patients’ weight and dosages are some of the strategies that have been implemented. Standardized labeling, prefilled syringes, and two-person medication checks were shown to be the most beneficial and sustainable medication mistake reduction techniques. Labeling that is consistent should be easily identified. Using a particular hue for certain medication classes is one method to do this. Opioid drugs, for instance, were color-coded with light-blue labeling. The positioning of the label on the syringe is also significant, and it has been discovered that having it lengthwise on the syringe assists with medicine identification. Over the last decade, the FDA has revised its regulations for prescription labeling, and hospitals are now including bar codes on all pharmaceuticals and biologics labels. Studies have indicated that completing lengthwise label placement reduces the risk of syringe exchange and medication mistakes, which is linked to a reduction in cognitive load. Prefilled syringes are supposed to prevent mistakes caused by provider preparation during pharmaceutical reconstitution and dilution, as well as offer the most correct amount of medication.Explanation:REFERENCES www.aana.com/aanajournalonline AANA Journal ? August 2021 ? Vol. 89, No. 4 323  Health Science Science NursingNSG 280

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