solution: Overview: The final project for this course is the creation of a supply chain evaluation. Supply cha

Overview: The final project for this course is the creation of a supply chain evaluation. Supply chain management (SCM) is a holistic view of a company’s efforts to source, procure, receive, store, and deliver products. These products can be raw materials for a manufacturing process, consumer goods for a retail chain, or a collection of items that will be joined in some way before ultimate delivery to the customer. In today’s global economic environment, SCM takes on an increasing level of complexity as companies attempt to reduce costs, drive efficiency, and remain compliant with the corporate social responsibilities that today’sconsumers demand.

Prompt: For this milestone, you will submit an evaluation of Walmart’s transportation and warehousing networks, focusing on constraints, modes of transportation, infrastructure, and special handling requirements. You will also make recommendations to improve transportation.

Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

IV. Transportation: In this section, first consider the effectiveness of Walmart’s transportation network in order to then determine possible cost savings without sacrificing performance.

A. Evaluation

  1. Identify constraints within the transportation network and discuss the impact they will have on the overall supply chain operation. Be
    sure to provide specific examples to illustrate.
  2. Analyze the transportation network and determine whether or not the correct modes of transportation are being used based on time,
    cost, and quantity.

B. Recommendations: Make recommendations on how to improve the transportation network given the constraints you identified using specific

examples to illustrate and justify your claims.

V. Warehousing: In this section, first analyze your client’s warehousing network in order to then determine requirements and develop recommendations for adequately meeting current and future storage needs.

A. Evaluation

  1. Analyze the current warehousing infrastructure to determine if the current warehousing network adequately meets storage needs.
    Additionally, consider eventual expansion requirements of Walmart’s operation. What are the constraints or restrictions involved inthe
    possible locations?
  2. Identify considerations for special handling of hazardous materials and describe their impact on warehousing for the current mix of
    products that Walmart’s SCM is handling, using specific examples.

  1. B. Recommendations
    1. Determine warehousing requirements that will ensure adequate availability of resources for the organization. Support your proposed
      requirements with given production and demand elements from the scenario.
    2. Based on your determination of requirements, recommend a warehouse design that will minimize movements between functions and
      reduce costs. Explain how your recommendation will drive this improvement throughout the network, considering facility costs,
      inventory carrying costs, personnel costs, and equipment costs.



Professor Fraser Johnson wrote this case solely to provide material for class discussion. The author does not intend to illustrate
either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The author may have disguised certain names and other identifying
information to protect confidentiality.

This publication may not be transmitted, photocopied, digitized or otherwise reproduced in any form or by any means without the
permission of the copyright holder. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights
organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Ivey Business School, Western
University, London, Ontario, Canada, N6G 0N1; (t) 519.661.3208; (e) [email protected];

Copyright © 2015, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation Version: 2015-11-26

Distribution and transportation have been so successful at Wal-Mart because senior management
views this part of the company as a competitive advantage, not as some afterthought or necessary
evil. And they support it with capital investment. A lot of companies don’t want to spend any
money on distribution unless they have to. Ours spends because we continually demonstrate that it
lowers our costs. This is a very important strategic point in understanding Wal-Mart.1

Joe Hardin

Executive Vice President, Logistics and Personnel, Walmart, 1986–1997

As Lesley Smith, senior vice president of supply chain management at Walmart China, sat in her office in
Futian District, Shenzhen, she reflected on the accomplishments of her team during the previous three
years, but recognized that more work still needed to be done:

A great deal has been accomplished since I arrived in late 2011. We have completed an aggressive
warehouse management system transition and converted our suppliers from a direct-to-store
delivery to centralized shipping through a Walmart DC [distribution centre]. Improvements to our
supply chain have created capabilities that provide improved quality and service to our customers
at lower costs. The team has been recognized for their accomplishments, but the journey is far
from over. Our next step is to build a supply chain for perishable products that is scalable and
sustainable — our next generation of supply chain infrastructure.

It was Wednesday, August 26, 2015, and Lesley was preparing for a meeting in Bentonville, Arkansas, in
late September, when she was expected to present a detailed plan for Walmart China’s network of
distribution centres for perishable products (perishable DC). The investment in infrastructure would be the
next major step in the organization’s supply chain transformation. However, Lesley needed to evaluate two
distinct options before her plans could be finalized. Walmart used two different perishable DC models in
its global operations. The traditional model used in United States was staple stock flow, whereas Walmart
used the cross dock flow model in its European operations (ASDA Stores Limited in the United Kingdom).

1 Sam Walton with John Huey, Made in America: My Story, Bantam, New York, 1993, p. 262.

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Page 2 9B15D018

The compelling arguments and trade-offs for both approaches needed to be balanced against Walmart
China’s needs for its supply chain operations. Lesley recognized that the decision to adopt either option
needed to be carefully evaluated since it would commit the organization to infrastructure that would
significantly impact both its supply chain capabilities and performance for the next 20 years.


Based in Bentonville, Arkansas, Walmart Stores Inc. (Walmart) was the world’s largest retailer, with sales
of $482 billion2 in fiscal year 2015. The company employed 2.2 million associates worldwide and operated
approximately 11,000 stores, under 72 banners, in 27 countries. It also provided online shopping in 11
countries. Each week, Walmart served more than 260 million customers. Online shopping had become an
important part of Walmart’s strategy, and the company expected to invest more than $1 billion on e-
commerce in fiscal year 2016.3 In the late 1960s, Sam Walton, the company’s legendary founder, had
pioneered the strategy of providing a broad assortment of quality merchandise at “everyday low prices.”
Walmart’s three operating segments were Walmart U.S., Walmart International and Sam’s Club. Exhibit 1
provides a summary of Walmart’s financial results for fiscal years 2011–2015.

Walmart China 4

Walmart entered China in 1996, opening its first Supercenter and Sam’s Club in Shenzhen, Guangdong
Province. By August 2015, the company’s Chinese presence had grown to 416 retail stores, consisting of
404 Supercenters and 12 Sam’s Club stores, covering 166 cities among 19 provinces, two autonomous
regions and four municipalities nationwide, and employing more than 100,000 associates. The
Supercenters were approximately 17,000 square metres (182,000 square feet) and offered an assortment of
approximately 20,000 items of general merchandise, consumables, grocery and fresh products. Sam’s Club
stores in China offered an assortment of approximately 5,000 items of bulk groceries, general merchandise
and fresh products to its members in its stores that spanned 20,000 square metres (215,000 square feet).

The company was expanding its e-commerce presence in China. In May 2015, Walmart China announced
the launch of its hypermarket online-to-offline (O2O) platform “Walmart To Go” in Shenzhen, where it
had its highest concentration of Supercenters. The platform consisted of the newly launched Walmart
mobile shopping app (application) and the “To Go Service Center” that allowed customers to place orders
for pick-up or home delivery. In addition, in July 2015, Walmart had acquired Yihaodian, a Chinese online
retailer, as part of its plans to accelerate development of its e-commerce business in China.


At any given time, large retailers in China, such as Walmart, carried 15,000 to 20,000 stock keeping units
(SKUs) in a typical store, and the assortment varied across stores. It was inefficient and impractical for
suppliers to ship all products directly to stores even though many retailers and suppliers in China followed
this ship-direct-to-store model in 2015. Walmart DCs allowed suppliers to ship products using full
truckloads, full container loads or in economic order quantities. Shipments to stores were consolidated at
the DC and shipped on the basis of individual store needs (e.g., forecasted requirements or customer
orders). Therefore, DCs provided several value-added activities to retail supply chains that could reduce

2 All currency amounts are shown in U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.
3 Walmart Stores, Inc. 2015 Annual Report.
4 The text in this section is based on company records and information on the “Walmart China Factsheet,” www.wal-, accessed August 28, 2015.

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Page 3 9B15D018

overall supply chain costs and improve customer service levels, by reducing transportation costs and
optimizing inventory levels. The DCs also enabled consistent service and product fill-rates to every store
regardless of its distance from suppliers and sales performance, resulting in increased in-stock positions
and higher sales. Common DC functions included consolidation, break-bulk, cross-docking, seasonal
storage and reverse logistics processing.

Walmart China operated two types of DCs in 2015: 11 perishable DCs and nine dry DCs. The latter, also
referred to as “ambient DCs,” handled dry grocery items, consumables and general merchandise products,
such as electronics, apparel and toys. The volumes shipped through the dry DCs were primarily cross dock,
which accounted for approximately 85 per cent of the total, with the balance as staple stock, which were
pulled from inventory held in the DCs. Perishable DCs handled products that required temperature-
controlled environments across three temperature zones: frozen (–8 degrees Celsius or below; e.g., frozen
food and ice cream), chill (0 to 10 degrees Celsius; e.g., meat, dairy, deli and produce) and normal (12 to
18 degrees Celsius; e.g., tropical fruits, chocolate and eggs). These perishable DCs operated with a flow-
through design that used cross docking to bypass storage, transferring products directly from the receiving
area to the outbound area for shipping to Walmart stores.

The Evolution of Walmart China’s Supply Chain

Lesley Smith had arrived in China in late 2011 as the new senior vice president of supply chain
management. She had previously worked for Walmart Canada as vice president of logistics at its head
office in Mississauga, Ontario, and had agreed to move to China to lead the transformation of the
company’s supply chain network. Lesley reflected on the challenges that she faced:

Our challenges were not just a supply chain–related, but were much broader enterprise issues.
Business transformation was necessary and supply chain was an important driver in this process.

The business was quite fragmented. We had 29 autonomous buying offices across the country,
with a serviceable dry network made up of five DCs servicing all stores. Logistics charged a
warehouse fee to suppliers for using our network, so suppliers and buyers were not interested in
going through our DCs because of the high costs and horrible service. The logistics team’s KPI
[key performance indicator] was cost. As a result, we commissioned large cube trucks that could
hold approximately 7,000 cases that were dispatched to the store only when completely full, which
sometimes took more than two weeks. So while we kept our costs in line, our store shelves were
often empty. To compensate, stores over-ordered and rented outside warehouses to hold the excess

We had over 20,000 suppliers, many of them distributors. Despite our large size, we had no
leverage because most suppliers only received orders for volumes for six or so stores. As an
example, a multinational supplier produced 18 items for us from its Chinese plant. However, this
supplier sold exclusively to 144 distributors, which meant that we needed to place orders to 144
different sources for same 18 items, all with low order volumes. Often we did not meet minimum
order quantity and the distributors would not deliver, affecting our order fill rates that cascaded
into low in-stock and on-shelf availability. Or, we would overcompensate by ordering more
inventory than needed, which affected our carrying costs. There was a general sense that this is the
way it has always been and that it would likely stay this way.

In early 2012, our country president rolled out a three-year business transformation plan. One area
of focus and investment would be supply chain. We were challenged to decrease direct-to-store

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Page 4 9B15D018

volume from suppliers, increase centralized shipment through DCs, increase service levels to
stores and establish a fresh DC network, while keeping our costs in line.

Current Situation

Between early 2012 and mid-2015, Lesley and the supply chain team made several changes that
transformed the supply chain at Walmart China. The centralization of the buying organization in Walmart
China reduced the number of regional buying offices and suppliers for both dry and perishable products; at
the same time, the supply chain team significantly improved the volume shipped to the DC network, by
strengthening the capacity and capabilities of the DC network and collaborating with suppliers to change
their shipment models. The initial capital investments in infrastructure focused on the supply chain for dry
products (ambient DCs); and, in 2015, Lesley started to focus on the design of the perishable DC network
(see Exhibit 2). She commented:

We are currently operating a total of 20 DC locations for perishable and dry and have completed
an aggressive warehouse management system transition. Supplier fill rates are up and so is in-
stock performance. We are fairly comfortable with our ambient DC network, including processes.
We run an ambient DC model similar to that of Walmart in U.S., with a combination of staple
stock and cross dock. To better manage the infrastructure cost, we maintain the volume of staple
stock in our ambient DC network at around 15 per cent, whereas in U.S., it is 50 per cent.

Most of the nine ambient DC operations are operated by Walmart exclusively, but all of our 11
fresh operations are run by 3PLs.5 They are all flow through operations and we share the space
with other users that the 3PLs support. We recognized that this was the only way we could get the
fresh operation established quickly to service all of our stores. This approach also required a much
less initial capital investment. However, capacity is limited in many of these sites and they are not
terribly efficient, with physical constraints at some of the sites, manual systems and processes. In
addition, we are training our 3PLs how to operate in this environment. Our current fresh operation
is not scalable and not sustainable for the long term. We have decided that our strategy is to take
this business in-house and build our own infrastructure.

Lesley wanted to start with the construction of a new perishable DC in Dongguan, with a planned opening
in early 2018. It would replace the Guangzhou and Shenzhen 3PL operations, which were expected to run
out of capacity by late 2017 and 2018 respectively. South China was the most strategic geographical region
for Walmart China in terms of business performance and concentration of stores; to support this region, it
was critically important to have a DC with sufficient capacity and the appropriate capabilities. The new
facility would support Walmart China’s approximately 128 stores in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces,
with a weighted average distance to store of approximately 170 kilometres. Walmart China’s headquarters
were in Shenzhen, close to Dongguan, providing opportunities to leverage management and systems. The
new DC would be the model for future investments in perishable DCs in China; however, Lesley needed to
determine the appropriate facility design that would be the most effective for Walmart China’s needs in the

Operating seven days a week on two shifts, the Dongguan DC would have capacity to ship approximately
150,000 cases per day, with an average value of $24.50 per case; peak demand was estimated at
approximately 90,000 cases per day for the launch in 2018 (see Exhibit 3). Daily average throughput at the
DC was expected to be approximately 70 per cent of peak demand and the product mix would consist of

5 3PLs refers to third-party logistics service providers.

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Page 5 9B15D018

about 3,500 SKUs across a broad range of product categories, such as deli, seafood, dairy, frozen meat,
produce, bakery, flowers, grocery, chocolate, ice cream and tropical fruits. Smith anticipated that
approximately 300 suppliers would be shipping products to the new DC. By 2025, the DC would support
approximately 200 stores and a peak day volume of 142,000 cases per day (see Exhibit 3).

Lesley identified two options for Walmart China’s new perishable DC network: “staple stock flow” and
“cross dock flow” models. These two DC models had unique advantages, and Walmart used both models
in its global perishable supply chain. Staple stock flow DCs were the dominant model in Walmart’s U.S.
perishable product supply chain, while its European operations most frequently used cross dock flow DCs.

Staple stock flow DCs offered capacity for short-term storage of inventory, whereas the cross dock flow
DCs used a flow-through model that did not maintain inventory. In a cross dock system, product was
shipped to the DC in full truckloads, unloaded from inbound trucks and loaded directly onto outbound
trucks for same-day delivery to stores. Consequently, the staple stock model required a warehouse with a
larger physical footprint and thus a greater capital investment, including building construction costs and
investments in equipment, such as racks and forklift trucks. Notwithstanding the additional costs of setting
up a staple stock flow DC, the design provided better utilization of the total cubic footprint since racking
exploited space up to the full ceiling height. Cross dock flow DCs did not require space for inventory
storage, which resulted in a smaller footprint and a lower ceiling height.

The ability to store inventory in the staple stock flow DC model provided additional advantages. Inventory
could be held either for three to seven days, depending on the shelf life of the products before shipping, or
for a single day, after which all inventory was forced out for items with very short shelf life. The latter was
sometimes referred to as “pick to zero.”

Whereas staple stock flow DCs provided greater flexibility in terms of adding stores, cross dock flow DCs
were more flexible at adding SKU capacity. The number of SKUs that could be allocated to staple stock
would be limited by the number of slots assigned, which was based on the availability of racking. Cross
dock flow DCs had no such limit, making them ideal for handling seasonal assortments. Efficiency in cross
dock flow DCs was dependent on suppliers’ adherence to delivery schedules, making this option best
suited for facilities with large volumes that were located close to the stores to which they delivered.
Scheduling and capacity management could be more challenging in cross dock flow DCs because of the
simultaneous arrival, unloading, loading and dispatch of goods for all stores serviced. Cross dock
processing was unable to be completed to match the travel distance to stores. That is, the deliveries for all
stores were prepared at the same time.

The new DC would be designed and constructed to Walmart’s specifications by a Chinese commercial real
estate firm. The site development and building costs would be built into the lease agreement, and Walmart
would commit to a 20-year lease for $10.8 per square metre per month, with an annual price escalation
equivalent to the rate of inflation. As part of the agreement, Walmart had the option to extend the term at
the end of the 20-year lease. Walmart would be responsible for costs related to interior construction,
information system hardware, software and infrastructure, materials handling equipment and office
furnishings. Exhibit 4 summarizes the facility costs (excluding lease payments and operating costs) for the
two options, either the staple stock DC or cross dock flow DC, which would be the responsibility of

The cross dock flow DC option also had the advantage of a smaller building footprint and lower handling
costs. Based on expected volumes, Lesley estimated that Walmart would need a staple stock DC of 35,000
square metres, whereas a cross dock DC to handle a comparable volume would need to be 24,000 square
metres. Handling costs also differed since the cross dock DC would not have capability for inventory

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Page 6 9B15D018

storage. The cost per case for the cross dock operation would be $1.02 compared with $1.35 for a staple
stock DC operation. Lesley commented on the relative advantages of the two options:

Cross docking has the advantages of lower construction, capital and handling costs. It has the
ability to handle an infinite number of SKUs, but becomes inefficient with a high number of stores,
because the pick path becomes too large and complex. Furthermore, scheduling is complicated in a
cross dock DC. All stores generally start and finish picking at the same time, and the schedule is
completely dependent on supplier delivery reliability and fill rate accuracy. Our suppliers will need
to adhere to strict schedules and quantities [see Exhibit 5 for a sample of “pick-by-line” grids and
pick path for cross-dock].

Scheduling is simpler for a staple stock DC. It will allow us to pick for stores that are further away
first and dispatch the trucks out. Inventory will allow us to buffer against supply problems, such as
short shipments and delays in deliveries. This is a critical consideration since local suppliers in
China are still far from mature in planning and demand fulfillment capabilities, leading to unstable
fill rates. The staple stock DC model provides an in-stock position and thus we are able to protect
our stores when the flow of goods is disrupted due to supplier fill issues. This is especially
important for events, festivals and season changes, when sales period is short. We cannot afford to
lose sales because we are not able to deliver the goods that our customers want to our stores.

Although the number of SKUs that we can carry is defined by the number of floor locations in
racking, a staple stock DC can service a higher number of stores and new formats more easily. The
staple stock DC also places our inventory closer to the stores. Since most stores receive daily
shipments from the DC, they can draw and receive inventory when needed, so lead-time is only
one day in most situations.

Staple stock DCs allows us the ability to react quickly to sales increase to keep in stock. It also
supports volume buying and other buying opportunities, such as seasonal and direct import. For
direct import, Walmart China imports goods directly from suppliers overseas, which after the
custom clearance process, is delivered through our DC network to the stores. This is a strategic
initiative to drive our future growth in China.

The recently launched “Walmart To Go” O2O initiative in Shenzhen stores requires fulfillment of
orders and picking of goods at stores. It does not change the operations at our DCs. However, a
staple stock DC model will help protect our in-stock position better at stores.


As Lesley prepared for her meeting in Bentonville, she sifted through the data that her team had collected.
The Walmart country president had given the supply chain organization three mandates as part of the
transformation process: To be the best-in-market perishable operator (e.g., in terms of productivity,
efficiency, product safety and compliance); to be able to support business growth and to provide the best
quality selection to customers (e.g., to maximize product shelf life). Lesley needed to carefully weigh the
relative advantages and disadvantages of both options in the context of this mandate when making her
recommendation at the management meeting the following month.

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Page 7 9B15D018

(amounts in US$ millions, except gross profit margin)

2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Net sales 482,229 473,076 465,604 443,416 418,500
Cost of sales 365,086 358,069 352,297 335,127 314,946
Gross profit margin (%) 24.3 24.3 24.3 24.5 24.8
Operating, selling and general administrative

93,418 91,353 88,629 85,265 81,361

Operating income 27,147 26,872 27,725 26,558 25,542
Income from continuing operations before tax 24,799 24,656 25,662 24,398 23,538
Net income 16,363 16,022 16,999 15,699 16,389
Inventories 45,141 44,858 43,803 40,714 36,437
Property, equipment and capital lease assets 116,117 117,907 116,681 112,324 107,878
Total assets 203,706 204,751 203,105 193,406 180,782
Long-term debt and capital lease obligations 43,692 44,559 41,417 47,079 43,842
Shareholders’ equity 81,394 76,255 76,343 71,315 68,542

Source: Walmart Stores, Inc. 2015 Annual Report.


2012 2015
Buying strategy Localized Centralized
Number of regional buying offices 28 0
Number of suppliers 2,658 820
Distribution centre volume as
percentage of total

3% 60%

Number of distribution centres 0 11
Store coverage 72 416
Daily average volume (cases) 5,833 120,000
Category coverage 5 12
Systems Fully manual Partially automatic
Quality control systems None – handled by stores Standardized
Replenishment visibility None Standardized
Number of temperature zones 1 3

Source: Company files.

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Page 8 9B15D018

(in cases per day)

Source: Company files.


(in US$ million)

Staple Stock


Cross Dock

Interior construction 1.54 1.20
Management Information Systems (MIS)
Equipment, servers, printers, etc. 1.00 1.00
Cabling, uninterruptible power supply, etc. 0.46 0.32
Total MIS 1.46 1.32
Materials Handling Equipment (MHE)
Forklift and other MHE 6.72 4.59
Racking 1.99 –
Office furniture 0.09 0.09
Total MHE 8.80 4.68
Total $ 11.80 $ 7.20

Source: Company files.

6 Daily average throughput volume was forecasted to be 70 per cent of peak daily volume.


88,915 96,028












2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025

Peak Day
of Cases
per Day


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Page 9 9B15D018


Source: Company files.

# of Stores Pallets/Store Case/Pallet

56 5 32

140 4 32

Note : Hauler takes full pallets from back of pick aisles for loading

Pick By Line Grid / Pick Path

An Example showing a pick grid for 196 stores with 56
stores allocated with 5 pallet space per store, and 140
stores allocated with 4 pallet space per store.

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