Running head: Adaptation Strategies for Construction Supply Chain During COVID-19.
Adaptation Strategies for Construction Supply Chain During COVID-19
Adaptation Strategies for Construction Supply Chain During COVID-19
1 Abstract 4
2 Introduction 6
3 BACKGROUND DATA 8
4 LITERATURE REVIEW 10
4.1 REVIEW 10
4.2 SCALABILITY 11
4.3 Substitution 11
4.3.1 REUSABILITY 12
4.4 REPRESENTATIVE REFLECTIONS FROM PARTICIPANTS 12
4.5 Repurposing 13
4.6 Cost reduction 14
4.7 Review 15
4.8 Adaptability 17
5 METHODOLOGY 20
5.1 METHODOLOGY 20
5.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 20
5.3 Case Study of FRANCE 21
5.4 Case Study of INDIA 27
5.5 State of India’s Construction Industry 28
5.5.1 Introduction 28
5.5.2 National income accounting 29
5.5.3 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 29
5.5.4 Indian Construction Industry Growth Trends 30
5.6 Implementation of ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN DURING COVID-19 31
5.7 CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN IN INDIA 32
5.8 Part IV. Case Study Analysis 33
5.8.1 The project results 33
6 The project results 35
7 Conclusion 37
8 RECOMMENDATIONS 39
9 REFLECTIVE ACCOUNT 41
9.1 Project management approach 41
9.2 Professional Development 41
9.3 Communication approach 42
9.4 Impacts of COVID 19 43
9.5 SYNERGY 46
10 References 47
11 Appendix A 50
11.1 Project Management Record 50
11.2 Meeting record (attendance) sheet. 50
Final Gantt Chart 50
11.3 Ethics Approval 51
12 Glossary 54
COVID 19 has affected all sectors, including the construction sector. As the construction sector relies a lot on the supply chain, it is important that different strategies have to be adopted to ensure that quality and affordable materials reach different construction companies. After coronavirus struck, several issues were reported in the construction sector. Some of them include the inaccessibility of materials due to active lockdowns, making many areas difficult to access. The other is increased transport costs to respond to restrictions on supply chain and logistics. As a result, the different materials that are required may no longer be available in the companies. To resolve the different issues affecting the construction sector, you must first resolve those related to the supply chain. One of the ways is to come up with different ways of accessing the materials, like getting licenses to access the locked areas. The paper also discusses the different ways that companies can make use of the available materials to address the different needs. Scaling the materials so that misuse is reduced or eliminated is how the issues can be resolved. Therefore, scalability, repurposing, and substitution create a thesis for research. The issues of our check will be employed by delivering chain and operations administrators to ameliorate the effectiveness and effectiveness with the resource of the utilization of turning ability from non-resistant, cost-the use of technique correct right into a price-creating, comprehensive decision-making paradigm. We advocate a spic-and-span technique to carry comparable dynamics to the perception of providing chain adaptability (Cheng et al., 2018). we tend to name our method Air and articulate its beloved blessing because of the discount of dislocation anticipation sweats and price creation from adaptability technique. This research provides a dialogue on exploration instructions in the direction of spare adaptability.
The major supply chain elements include integration, operations, purchasing, and distribution. These elements rely on each other to deliver as much as possible to the customers. Integration starts at the very first stage of strategic planning and runs through the whole process; it helps integrate your full supply chain solutions while being flexible with the dynamic business environment. On the other hand, operations require a real-time representation of your inventory with the help of software that aligns your operations with your business (Meyer et al, 2021). On the other hand, purchasing is aided by software that ensures your products are being purchased at the most competitive prices and to the right customers. This is aided by demand forecasting, ensuring your product is delivered in the right quantity and time. Finally, the distribution of your products should be the most simplified task for better client service. Transport, delivery, and return of goods ought to be brought together for a constant frame perspective on stock, request status, and store area paying little heed to where the product was ordered. After the covid 19 pandemic, there has been a great negative impact on business projects already in place. This has made it difficult for construction companies to bounce back to their normal business routines. All these depend on the level of disruption of the supply chain on the projects, and some projects will bounce back immediately while others will take time to resume their normal operations (Meyer et al, 2021). Construction businesses in the modern days should be designed in a manner that they can bounce back or thrive in all situations.
The pandemic has hit various businesses in different industries, following no projects that were taking place because almost everyone was striving to stay healthy and alive, putting aside such major projects. This will cause major delays in the development of the economy, thus a need to come up with ways to recover from such drawbacks. Therefore, this means that the managers in charge of the major projects need to rethink ways they will complete their projects and still deliver to their customers. Supply chain management works in a manner that involves a series of steps to deliver a product or service to a customer. These processes involve transforming raw materials into finished products. In our case, we will look at the construction industry and how the supply chain affects it. The importance of any business to understand the supply chain is to define its market and determine where they want to be in the future. Marketing of any business entity requires that the organization’s marketing team liaise with supply chain partners to plan and execute products and services (The importance of supply chain is that it decreases the total supply chain marketing costs by designing networks that meet customer service goals at the least cost. Marketing through the supply chain helps deliver products and services to customers at the right time, place, and amount (Aldrighetti et al, 2021). These marketing chains form a supply chain that brings a competitive advantage to survive in all economic situations.
The main causes of projects supply chain disruptions include shortages of materials, delivery of services or products delays, and longer lead times. On the other hand, the rising raw material costs have also negatively impacted the projects. Also, following the high demand for products and services during the pandemic has contributed to supply chain disruptions (Meyer et al, 2021). The supply chain has become so vulnerable due to the growing reduction of raw materials suppliers, which in turn causes low-quality products from the few suppliers available. This causes supply chain disruption because no quality raw materials reach the end customers.
Enterprises worldwide Bare facing significant challenges from the growing competition and the destabilizing goods of climate, complaints, and other external threats. The COVID-19 occurrence and world epidemic have vastly affected all areas of prudence and society, raising a series of new decision-making settings for force chain experimenters and interpreters (Li et al., 2021). Supply chain operation has been recognized as a critical capability to be suitable to navigate similar pitfalls successfully. The end of designing robust and flexible logistics networks to help enterprises maintain and enhance their competitive advantages as they encounter environmental turbulence. Construction supply chain pitfalls into different sorts of useful and dislocation chances. Functional chance typically does now no longer affect the functionalities of the SC rudiments, even though it impacts the useful factors. On the opposite hand, Dislocation threat is expounded to a selected kind of event which will try this may affect the SC, the same as a natural disaster or a purposeful/ unintentional mortal action (e.g., war, terrorist attack, epidemic/ epidemic. outbreak, strike), that are marked by an occasional liability of circumstance and a high magnitude of consequence.
The current research attempts to identify the link between these two chance factors, especially the definition of their conflict on the SC success rate. The analysis is based on a mixture of quantitative and qualitative data from our experience more than. Ten years’ business process improvement projects, wherein we have been engaged in developing numerous force chains for more than various enterprises in several countries. To this end, we have conducted a content analysis and a content-based meta-analysis of the literature about the development of enterprise force chains.
This research aims to provide tangible insights into how these two factors affect the operational performance and agility of SC and serve as a guide for force chain experimenters in their future projects. Since this research uses qualitative surveys and analysis for data collection, we rely directly on what we consider believable and meaningful information to draw out useful insights. We hope that this research would be a useful aid to researchers and practitioners alike in identifying how to improve the operational success of their force chains in a timely and meaningful way.
The need for enterprise change is nothing new, but it can be accomplished more efficiently with proper targeted knowledge and skill. Therefore, in addition to gathering data from extensive studies on the topic, this research will also provide actionable insights from the qualitative responses from the survey participants.
Adaptive Supply chain
According to Ivanov (2020), the virus has affected numerous areas, including the supply chain. From this article, the author identifies that the supply chain sector was affected and relevant in construction ways of reducing the cost had to be reviewed. Construction had to go on even during the virus. Due to the many restrictions put in by WHO to reduce the spread of the Corona Virus, construction materials could barely be accessed, and the few materials found their way to the city. One of the ways that COVID forced the construction companies to adopt is substitution. For example, companies have been forced to use different materials like concrete. The absent materials can be replaced or substituted by those which could be easily accessed without interfering with the health restrictions. The other is scalability and repurposing. Repurposing is where you use the materials you have for more or different purposes than you previously planned.
For example, the building materials are repurposed to create new things. It is also important to note that it is important to have a good working relationship with suppliers because if the business wants special products or materials, they have to purchase them from their suppliers. This means that they will need more of their supplies, but it is more cost-effective if they wait until the supply is available again; this also applies to patients seeking medication or any other medical supplies.
Scalability is the ability of a company or organization to make use of the available materials or resources though inadequate, to meet the required purpose. Ivanon (2020) explains that a solution to some of the inconveniences in the supply chain that have been caused by COVID 19 can be solved with scalability. If an organization adopts scalability, the available resources can be used so that all the needs are met satisfactorily. For example, the available resources are used in a way that they can serve the purpose as a limit in the movement has stopped major activities like supply chain.
Some companies are expanding their operation to meet the demands of customers. However, they also consider what materials are readily available in the market, not what is needed. For example, suppose a construction company cannot access important raw material items. In that case, they must be able to replace them with something close by that will still accomplish the work needed.
Different clients prefer different materials used in their projects according to their tastes and preferences in construction. With the COVID situation today, substitution is allowed to keep the project going if the client allows you. This will happen if the company cannot access the particular material that is not available, and there is another which can still accomplish the purpose. For example, the client might prefer a particular kind of ballast, but it cannot be accessed due to the reigning COVID regulations. However, if there is a similar material of the same quality, the organization can discuss with the client for substitution.
Ivanon (2021) also discusses a solution to the impacts of coronavirus on supply chain and construction as reusability. According to his research, he explains that supply chain and construction companies can be encouraged to make good use of the available resources. Before the pandemic, the supply chain ran smoothly, and therefore construction sites received enough materials. However, the normal supply was disrupted, and companies are expected to be more creative in their work. One way of solving this problem is by reusing materials that they had previously disposed of but are still useful.
Based on the survey, the representative reflections from the participants are summarized below.
Would be affected by COVID
Will companies need to change
Are adaptation by system changes necessary
Data for interview of 47 CEOs on corona impact on the construction Supply Chain.
The responses indicate that most of them do not think they would be affected by COVID in the construction industry (40.1 %), but they believe companies will have to adapt to changes. In addition, most of them do not think there is a significant organizational change needed because people will be able to adapt and get used to this type of scenario. to change, but some companies will have to adapt their processes and systems (31.2 %). The rest of them do not think a significant organizational change is needed because they can adapt to change, but some companies will have to adapt their processes and systems (33.7 %).
This relates to using certain materials for more than the purpose they were set for. Certain resources can be stretched to be used for more than just one purpose. For example, personnel contracted to do the slab work can only have employed to do other assignments in the organization. Similarly, the materials can be used for more than the purposes they were made for. As the supply chain’s department is limited in the materials they can supply, it is upon the construction team to develop different strategies to achieve a come goal. One of the strategies is to assign the materials to be used for more than just the purpose they are made for. This can be done with determination and creativity to use the materials for other purposes.
Repurposing is an activity to use the materials under construction for another purpose. This is important because the materials are not available, and it keeps the chain running, increases investment in a short period, and reduces cost. We identify that the two function opportunities to reduce external threats are raising suppliers’ work performance and safety. Currently, safety is an important issue in the construction industry because it has safety risks that can cause damage to people’s health if precautions are not taken.
Painting unused land is cost-effective. It is also used to control the site’s looks. The painting can make the site look more attractive to pass any standard inspection. Savings on supplies, fuel, and time are important factors for this strategy. This strategy can help to reduce the use of materials. The current construction industry has faced many challenges ranging from regulating health and safety to economic downturns. The key to reducing these challenges is to reconstruct knowledge, skills, and practices to respond to new business needs. The high competition in the industry has presented many challenges for Canadian construction companies, especially in finding an adequate replacement for older technologies. However, there are no techniques available to reduce the risks involved in this practice when implementing it. This is one of the major challenges that construction companies face currently because it has caused many injuries. (Amtower, 2008). The use of technology has played a big role in developing occupational safety and healthcare because it has provided a platform to access.
Although information about method health is considered safe, as a new proper approach way to health doing and business, safety it is management not can effectively be for achieved all through companies technology-based and approaches in all-new environments. Technologies, for example, be used using both in this prevention process and in early detection high-risk of situation risks can (Greene lead et al., poor 2010). performance and economic losses.
The organization faces two types of risks when implementing the repurposing method: Proper communication can help avoid these risks when implementing the repurposing method. The organization needs to reduce communication barriers such as department segregation attitude differences among different departments. In addition, proper communication can increase collaboration within the organization.
In terms of technology, it provides a platform to access information about any healthcare issues. For example, it can be used as a safety tool to reduce healthcare-related risk by providing a better way for health care workers to manage safety and health issues. This is important because it is a new approach that can provide more effective safety and business operations management. The repurposing method has been applied in many industries, such as construction. In addition, it has been utilized since 1971 in the air cargo industry to control delays of materials from delayed shipments at airports.
According to Golan et al. (2020), the supply chain and logistics sectors were affected by COVID 19, where the impacts were adversely felt in the construction industry. The virus disrupted the supply of materials used in construction in the different areas due to the introduced restrictions to fight COVID I9. However, to not stop the construction sector, the construction sector had to develop different techniques to meet the needs. One of them is repurposing, where the available materials are used for more than the purposes they are set for. The other is replacing or substituting the unavailable materials with those that can be accessed.
Innovation in supply chain
Different ways can be used to solve the disruption caused by COVID 19 in the construction sector. With the supply chain being a core department in construction activities, urgent steps have to be taken to resolve the issue of delays or any other inconveniences caused by the COVID 19 restrictions. The advancements aim to make the supply chain department more resilient and withstanding in the time of any calamity. The innovations include alternative methods of distributing that will work regardless of the calamity. According to Colan et al. (2020), the department can adopt measures such as cheaper storage facilities aimed at holding more commodities. If, before the calamity, many companies had great storage facilities which did not charge excessively, then many of the activities would have been running regardless of the COVID 19 regulations. As a result, the supply chain and logistics departments will have enough materials in their stores to be supplied to the different construction sites. This would mean that construction activities would still go on with the lockdowns on the many areas where they could get materials from.
Ivanon (2021) states that at the beginning of COVID 19, there was much concern regarding its impacts on the construction industry, but most people had gotten used to it. According to him, most people are adapting to this new reality, and they are learning how to work around it. For example, clients encourage suppliers to use their products more than once for different projects. This will be to save materials. Also, they are encouraging their companies to use recycled materials in different ways. They are also encouraging companies to use cheaper materials that can provide the same function but at a cheaper price. According to the progress made by the supply chain and logistics sector in Israel, there are also other advancements being made in terms of upgrading their facilities and warehouses.
Depending on the intensity of COVID 19, the supply chain should adapt to the different changes that come with the pandemic. For example, the effects of the pandemic include lockdowns internally and on different country borders. This reduced the parameters of many construction companies regarding where they could get materials from. Therefore, other alternatives had to come in handy for those requiring imported materials before the activities stalled. This is one way to solve the supply chain issues and affect the construction sector during the pandemic.
According to Ivanov (2021), the virus has affected numerous areas, including the supply chain. From this article, the author identifies that the supply chain sector was affected and relevant in construction ways of reducing the cost had to be reviewed. Construction had to go on even during the virus. Due to the many restrictions put in by WHO to reduce the spread of the Corona Virus, construction materials could barely be accessed, and the few materials found their way to the city. One of the ways that COVID forced the construction companies to adopt is substitution. For example, companies have been forced to use different materials like concrete. The absent materials can be replaced or substituted by those which could be easily accessed without interfering with the health restrictions. The other is scalability and repurposing. Repurposing is where you use the materials you have for more or different purposes than you previously planned. According to Golan et al. (2020), the supply chain and logistics sectors were affected by COVID 19, where the impacts were adversely felt in the construction industry. The virus disrupted the supply of materials used in construction in the different areas due to the introduced restrictions to fight COVID I9. However, to not stop the construction sector, the construction sector had to develop different techniques to meet the needs. One of them is repurposing, where the available materials are used for more than the purposes they are set for. The other is replacing or substituting the unavailable materials with those that can be accessed.
At the end of the article, it states that if one is affected by the Teraborica disease, then there are ways where you can avoid, fight and cure the disease. According to this article by Ivanov (2021), you can develop plans to improve your resilience. For example, if there is a pandemic, they want to keep their supplies stocked up with materials. They would want this because they will need to be ready in case of an emergency or during a pandemic. The other reason is to have a backup plan if anything goes wrong during a pandemic.
In another article by Aldrighetti (2021), an Italian physicist named Fabio De Michele develops a system using a mathematical model in which you can predict the spread of disease. The model he created is a simple but powerful tool used in many different situations, such as epidemics and natural disasters. When he developed this model, he used an example of the H1N1 virus that spread in 2009. The main goal of this project was to try to predict the extent of the spread of the disease. In his article, he talks about how scientists could not predict what was going to happen during this pandemic and how it affected different countries differently.
According to De Michele (2021), in 2009, there was a huge epidemic of the H1N1 virus. This is influenza caused by the surface of influenza virus on and to it state originated from the swine is and going birds. To try to spread and use this disease, mathematical was model really in fast which and you scientists can not predict how to spread easily of it a would disease. Spread into his other article, countries. he When talks this about disease how started scientists impacting were many not different able countries, to scientists predict tried what to was Figure going out to if happen they during could this use pandemic models and to how to predict it how affected difficult different it countries would differently. Be He forgoes one on particular to country state to that fight he against is the going disease to and try how and far use it as would mathematical spread. Model in which you can predict the spread of disease. For example, if there were an epidemic where 2000 people got infected, then after two months, 500 would get infected and so on. This is an example of an epidemic where infected people will keep rising over time.
This part of the study entails a review of case studies designed to offer approaches to conducting geographical studies, examining the first three stages of the construction supply chain, and design measures that can be taken to improve future projects.
The case study is divided into three parts: (i) the environment and socio-economic aspects of construction, (ii) the construction sector and project development, and (iii) the evaluation of adaptation strategies. Each part is structured around three themes: (i) the construction sector, (ii) adaptation strategies, and (iii) the evaluation of adaptation strategies.
The case study is divided into three parts: Part I. Case Study Introduction. This part provides a framework for the study, discusses the research methodology and aims, and introduces the three case studies. Part II. Case Study of FRANCE This part describes the industry scenario in France, describes the country’s major players and discusses how companies are responding to regulatory changes. Part III. Case Study of INDIA This part examines the scenario of the Indian construction industry, describes the regulatory changes over the last five years in India and discusses how companies are responding to these changes. Part IV. Case Study Analysis This part provides the research results, draws conclusions, and provides recommendations.
The main research methodology used in the case studies was the co-productivity index, also known as ‘the three Rs’ – deregulation, technological change, and regulation.
These concepts are described in greater detail below. The Co-productivity Index (the 3 Rs) The term co-productivity has been used to refer to two different concepts. The first is to refer to the performance of an individual actor within a system. In this case, the actor is the building contractor; for example, the system is an organization’s specific project or activity. In this instance, co-productivity refers to the total output divided by the total input of that actor or business process unit – that is, its productivity of outputs relative to inputs. The second meaning is to refer to the performance of an organization as a whole. In this case, co-productivity refers to the organization’s output divided by the inputs used to produce that output. Co-productivity can be used in several major areas, including construction, utilization, deregulation, technological change, regulation. Construction Co-productivity the first two steps in conducting a co-productivity study determine the sources of inputs and outputs used in a company’s business. The 3Rs are then used on all these inputs and outputs that are measured, and the resulting ratio gives the measure of co-productivity for that company. Co-productivity in the construction sector is used to describe a company’s performance compared to its competitors, which refers to their total outputs divided by total inputs. The use of the 3Rs allows us to examine the impact government regulation has had on change in co-productivity. A study was conducted based on companies building multi-storied buildings where co-productivity ratios were calculated for each building type. This allowed us to compare how different governmental policies have affected the level of output for building types where government regulations are present.
In France, all multi-storied buildings were required only to utilize steel reinforcement before 2010. Co-productivity ratios were then calculated for buildings built before and after this date. We can conclude that government regulation affected the level of performance in the buildings built, with co-productivity increasing due to this legislation. To illustrate, before 2010, the co-productivity ratio for steel-reinforced concrete (SRC) was 0.26 (0.0076/0.277; or 26%), whereas after 2010 it was 0.32 (0.0112/0.274; or 32%).
Thus, the legislation had a positive impact on co-productivity. Since the industry has started to shift from SRC to concrete and reinforced concrete (RC), we can make conclusions based on the performance of these types of buildings and how co-productivity has been affected by government regulation. Concrete and RC Co-productivity the first two steps in conducting a co-productivity study are to determine the sources of inputs and outputs used in a company’s business. 1. The 3Rs are then used on all these inputs and outputs that are measured, and the resulting ratio gives the measure of co-productivity for that company. Concrete is a traditional building material, but concrete is changing. Today concrete is reconfiguring itself in how it was designed ten years ago. Since 2007, hard concrete has been replacing the role of Steel in structural engineering. This change can be seen in how concrete has grown over time (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: Hard concrete technology has increased over time and is replacing Steel in the building industry.
Figure 2: illustrates how concrete is changing. This change has become more evident as concrete production has increas
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