solution: Discussion topic Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches In your initial post, compare qua

Discussion topic

Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches

In your initial post, compare quantitative and qualitative research approaches.  Start by describing the defining characteristics of quantitative research, and then contrast this set of characteristics against the defining characteristics of qualitative research.  Identify the strengths of each type of research, and discuss the best uses of each research approach.  Finally, identify shortcomings of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches.  What limitations are there in each approach?

Respond to classmate one:

 A qualitative approach is a general approach for determining the best methods for conducting qualitative research. Interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, participant observation, firsthand observation, and recordings recorded in natural settings are all used to collect data for qualitative research. The information gathered is mainly non-numerical and focuses on people’s perceptions of their social environment. Quantitative research, on the other hand, focuses on objective measurements and statistical mathematical or numerical analysis of data obtained by surveys, questionnaires, and polls, as well as modifying pre-existing statistical data using computing tools. Introduction, literature and theory, methodology, results, and comments are all included in the final written report.

Regardless of the differences in meaning between quantitative and qualitative research, they are both research methods that follow a step-by-step procedure, taking into account all aspects of the research process, such as procedures and designs, in a systematic manner. This is consistent with the concept of research as a methodical and methodical process (Shields, et. al., 2015). Qualitative research is founded on social science fields such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology. As a result, qualitative research methodologies enable in-depth and follow-up probing and questioning of respondents based on their responses, with the researcher attempting to understand their purpose.

Respond to classmate two:

Qualitative and quantitative researches are the most common type of research methodologies. Each differs from the other in several ways as discussed below. According to Brannen (2017), when a researcher is collecting and analyzing data, quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics. On the contrary, qualitative research describes phenomena using words and meanings. Quantitative research is mostly used to test or confirm theories and assumptions. It is used to establish generalized facts about a research topic. It uses methods such as observations, experiments, surveys and close-ended questionnaires. 

 

On the other hand, qualitative research is applied to understand concepts, phenomena, experiences or thoughts. The objective of qualitative research differs from that of quantitative in that it enables one to gain in-depth insight on a particular topic that is not well understood. Qualitative research collects data using methods such as open-ended questionnaires, observation and literature review to explore concepts from different authors. Bernard and Bernard (2013) noted that qualitative research is mostly applied to gain an insight into human behavior, attitude, intention, motivation and experience. The researcher gives more weight to a particular participant based on their knowledge of the subject matter. 
In terms of approach, qualitative research follows a subjective approach (where the research is intimately involved), on the contrary, quantitative research is objective viz. the researcher is not involved. In terms of analyzing data, qualitative method uses inductive approach to synthesize data while the quantitative uses a deductive approach. In terms of sampling, qualitative research uses purposive sampling using a small sample size to gain a general overview of the targeted concepts or ideas. On the contrary, quantitative research relies on the random sampling technique as a representative of the chosen sample size. It also uses a large sample size.
In application, quantitative research is mostly preferred when confirming or testing a theory or hypothesis. On the other hand, qualitative research is mostly used when a researcher wants to gain a deeper insight into something (thoughts, experiences or concepts).

Discussion Topic Two

Research Designs Part I

In your initial post, due on Day 3, choose two different research designs from the list below, analyze how each design works, and summarize the characteristics of the design. (Note that the first four research designs are purely qualitative in nature and the other three designs can employ either quantitative or qualitative data-collection methodologies.) Include in your analysis the kind of sample typically used in each design, the methodology typically used to collect data (i.e., interviews, questionnaires, etc.), the type of data typically collected, and the types of phenomena that are typically studied using the research design. Reference at least three different academic sources in describing the two research designs.

Narrative Design

Phenomenology

Case Study

Grounded Theory Design

Delphi Technique

Action Research

Program Evaluation

Respond to classmate one:

Phenomenological research design

Phenomenological research design is a qualitative research method that helps researchers in describing the lived experience of an individual. As noted by Vagle (2018), it involves studying the phenomenon that has affected the life of a given individual. It involves identifying phenomena as perceived by an individual. For instance, in my research topic ‘the impact of parental involvement on adolescent academic success’ the researchers can study how parental involvement has impacted student performance by studying students’ perceptions about involvement. The research aims to obtain the purest data from the participants that have not been obtained before. The research collects data through recording (personal notes), observation, documentation to construct universal meaning of experience and art. These data collection methods enable the researcher to add to the credibility of data, which enables the researcher to produce an unbiased narrative. The objective is to understand the participant’s personal experience related to the phenomenon and to determine how it has influenced their experience. According to Vagle (2018), the richness of data collected using this research design creates new opportunities for further inquiry. The researcher can decide to conduct observation or written records, diaries, journals, texts and poetry. Open-ended questions can also be applied to allow the participants to open up. The sample size in this research design is usually small, one or two individuals.

Phenomenological research could be employed in my research topic by using semi-structured open-ended questions. For instance, the researcher might seek to understand how parents perceive involvement and its subsequent impact on adolescent academic performance. similarly, students can also be requested to highlight how they perceive parental involvement and whether it affects their motivation and attitude toward education using open-ended questions.

Delphi research design

Delphi research is an approach that involves obtaining an opinion or decision by surveying a panel of experts. According to Bloor et al. (2015), it involves sending multiple questionnaires to a panel of experts. The experts are presented with a summary of the previous result to allow them to adjust to the group response. This process is considered effective since it leverages expert opinion and the element of wisdom of crowds. It can be applied in both qualitative and quantitative studies. The experts have an opportunity to adjust their views based on group responses. As noted above, Delphi’s research design mostly uses semi-structured questionnaires. The sample size for this study could range from small to large sample size. This method is mostly applied to complex topics or subjects that lack expert consensus (Östlund et al., 2011).

 

Respond to classmate two:

Phenomenological research design is a qualitative research method that helps researchers in describing the lived experience of an individual. As noted by Vagle (2018), it involves studying the phenomenon that has affected the life of a given individual. It involves identifying phenomena as perceived by an individual. For instance, in my research topic ‘the impact of parental involvement on adolescent academic success’ the researchers can study how parental involvement has impacted student performance by studying students’ perceptions about involvement. The research aims to obtain the purest data from the participants that have not been obtained before. The research collects data through recording (personal notes), observation, documentation to construct universal meaning of experience and art. These data collection methods enable the researcher to add to the credibility of data, which enables the researcher to produce an unbiased narrative. The objective is to understand the participant’s personal experience related to the phenomenon and to determine how it has influenced their experience. According to Vagle (2018), the richness of data collected using this research design creates new opportunities for further inquiry. The researcher can decide to conduct observation or written records, diaries, journals, texts and poetry. Open-ended questions can also be applied to allow the participants to open up. The sample size in this research design is usually small, one or two individuals.

Phenomenological research could be employed in my research topic by using semi-structured open-ended questions. For instance, the researcher might seek to understand how parents perceive involvement and its subsequent impact on adolescent academic performance. similarly, students can also be requested to highlight how they perceive parental involvement and whether it affects their motivation and attitude toward education using open-ended questions.

Delphi research design

Delphi research is an approach that involves obtaining an opinion or decision by surveying a panel of experts. According to Bloor et al. (2015), it involves sending multiple questionnaires to a panel of experts. The experts are presented with a summary of the previous result to allow them to adjust to the group response.

Discussion topic three:

Research Designs Part II

In your initial post, analyze the four major types of quantitative research designs listed below, and summarize the characteristics of each. Include in your analysis the kind of sample typically used in implementing each research design, the methodology typically used to collect data (i.e.. interviews, questionnaires, etc.), the type of data typically collected, and the types of phenomena that are typically studied using each research design. Reference at least three different academic sources in describing the research designs.

Descriptive

Correlational

Quasi-experimental

Experimental

Respond to classmate one:

The four major types of qualitative design include descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental and experimental design.

Descriptive research design is used by researchers to describe systematically an area of interest. According to Bloomfield and Fisher (2019), this approach is mostly applied in studying public opinion, status studies, population census studies and fact-finding surveys. The researcher uses this approach to answer questions such as what, when, where and how about a given situation or phenomenon. It is mostly used to investigate one or two phenomena by just observing without manipulating variables. It is mostly used when the researcher is interested in identifying trends, categories, frequencies and characteristics. It is also used when there is little known information about a topic or problem. The most commonly used data collection method includes observation, case study and surveys research approach.

Second, correlational research design evaluates the extent to which variation in one variable corresponds with variation in one or more variables as indicated by a correlational coefficient. It is mostly used to study factor-analytical studies, investigating the relationship between reading scores and other variables (Crano, Brewer & Lac, 2014). The main objective is to test strength of association between two or more variables. It is mostly used to investigate causal and non-causal relationships. In social science, correlational research design collects data using surveys, secondary data and observations.

Respond to class mate two:

While there are many different types of quantitative research designs, they are generally classified into two categories: experimental research and non-experimental research. The four most common research study designs are descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental.” (Grove, Gray, and Burns 2015).

Descriptive Research

Descriptive research design is used to describe the characteristics of a population or phenomenon under investigation. It does not provide answers to the questions of how/when/why the characteristics arose. Rather, it addresses the question of “what.” The observation technique is the best technique for conducting descriptive analysis, and both quantitative and qualitative observation are used in this study. The most popular data collection approaches include observation, case studies, and surveys.

Correlational Research

Correlational Research Design involves observing two variables and attempting to establish a statistically significant relationship between them. The goal of correlational research is to identify variables that have a relationship to the extent that a change in one causes a change in the other. Questionnaires, secondary data, and observations are all used in correlational research.

Quasi-Experimental

The goal of quasi-experimental research is to evaluate the relationship between an intervention and an outcome using experiments in which the interventions are not assigned at random. The method is primarily used in the evaluation of rapid responses to outbreaks or other issues concerning patient safety (Stürmer, 2011). The research is divided into three categories: design with a control group, design without a control group, and design with interrupted time series.

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