EXPERT SOLUTION: Eighth Edition American Social Welfare Policy A Pluralist Approach Howard Jacob Karger Hawai

Eighth Edition

American Social Welfare Policy
A Pluralist Approach

Howard Jacob Karger
Hawai’i Pacific University, School of Social Work

David Stoesz
Flinders University/Carnegie Mellon University-Australia

330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Karger, Howard Jacob, author. | Stoesz, David, author.
Title: American social welfare policy : a pluralist approach / Howard Jacob Karger,
Hawai’i Pacific University, School of Social Work, David Stoesz.
Description: Eighth Edition. | New York : Pearson, [2018] | Revised edition
of American social welfare policy, [2014] | Includes bibliographical
references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2016040802 | ISBN 9780134303192 (alk. paper) | ISBN 0134303199 (alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Public welfare—United States. | United States—Social
policy. | Welfare state—United States.
Classification: LCC HV95 .K354 2018 | DDC 361.973—dc23 LC record available at
https://lccn.loc.gov/2016040802

1 16

ISBN 10: 0-13-462812-8
ISBN 13: 978-0-13-462812-7

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iii

The years since the publication of the last full edi-
tion have been marked by dramatic events on the
domestic and international fronts. Although the
U.S. economy bounced back from the global finan-
cial crisis (GFC) of 2007 to 2008, the post- recession
gains were largely realized by the top 1 percent of
U.S. wage earners who accounted for 85 percent
of total income growth from 2009 to 2013. By
2013, the 1.6 million families in the top 1 percent
earned 25 times more than the 161 million families
in the bottom 99 percent. It is little wonder that this
egregious income inequality led to large numbers of
angry people, which in turn, fueled the rise of presi-
dential candidate Donald Trump.

The international front was especially turbulent
as the Arab Spring toppled or destabilized govern-
ments in Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Libya, and Syria.
By 2016, at the same time, the war in Iraq and
Afghanistan continued to drag on. By mid-2016, an
increasingly bloody civil war in Syria claimed more
than 400,000 lives and was largely responsible for
the 1 million immigrants that entered Europe in
2015.

The instability in the Middle East led to the
creation of ISIL (Islamic State), a militant group di-
rectly or indirectly responsible for numerous mas-
sacres, including the 2015 attack on the Bataclan
Theatre near Paris (130 dead and 368 injured); the
2015 Ankara, Turkey, bombing (102 dead and 400
injured); the 2015 San Bernardino attack (14 dead
and 24 injured); and the 2016 Orlando nightclub
attack (49 dead and 53 injured). Western nations
continue the struggle to find a balance between pro-
tecting privacy, civil liberties, and public safety.

Despite the domestic and international chal-
lenges, the way forward was stymied as the federal
government was virtually paralyzed by the Repub-
lican Party’s control of the Senate and the House of
Representatives. With the death of Antonin Scalia,
even the Supreme Court was divided between lib-
erals and conservatives. A divided government re-
sulted in a virtual standstill of policy options.

In the midst of this virtual paralysis, several
important policy developments emerged in the first
term of the Obama administration. Some of these
achievements include the Dodd–Frank Wall Street
Reform and Consumer Protection Act, one of the

most significant financial reform acts since the Great
Depression; the Patient Protection and Affordable
Care Act of 2010 (known as Obamacare); repeal
of the military’s Don’t Ask Don’t Tell (DADT) rule;
the Credit Card Accountability, Responsibility, and
Disclosure Act; and the Children’s Health Insurance
Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPS).

The presidential election of 2012 proved to be
one of the most acrimonious in recent memory. Ex-
treme Republican Party ideologues drove the party
far to the right in areas such as contraception, abor-
tion, health care, voter’s rights, and immigration. In
the end, President Obama’s moderate approach tri-
umphed as he won 303 electoral votes compared to
Mitt Romney’s 206 votes. The election illustrated
the sharp divisions in American society between the
more liberal Northeast, West Coast, some West-
ern and Midwestern states, and the more conser-
vative South and rural areas. These patterns reflect
differing perceptions of where America should be
heading.

The acrimony of the 2012 presidential election
was far eclipsed by the 2016 presidential election, as
Republican candidates vied to outdo each other in
appealing to the white and increasingly conservative
base of the party. Extremist candidates like Ted Cruz
and Donald Trump handily defeated more moderate
candidates such as Jeb Bush and John Kasich.

On the Democratic side, Vermont Senator Bernie
Sanders introduced a European-style democratic
socialist vision to mainstream American politics.
Defying all odds, Sanders won several primaries
against favored Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton,
including Oregon, North Dakota, Minnesota,
New Hampshire, Michigan, Indiana, and Vermont.
In the raw primary vote count, Sanders received
12 million votes compared to Clinton’s 15.8 million.

In one of the most shocking upsets in recent po-
litical history, Donald Trump beat Hillary Clinton
for the presidency, despite some polls showed her
chances for victory at between 70 and 99 percent.
Progressives of all ilk and Democrats were in shock,
disbelief, and fear.

Several changes will be required if human ser-
vice professionals are to reclaim a prominent role in
social policy that they had at the turn of the century
through luminaries such as Jane Addams, Lillian

P r e f a c e

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iv P r e f ac e

Wald, Grace and Edith Abbott, Mary Simkhovitch,
and others. Markets have been a primary means
of distributing goods and services to the non-poor,
and the application of market dynamics to low-
income families should be evaluated on merit, not
discarded solely on ideological grounds. State and
local politics have been important arenas for intro-
ducing innovations in social welfare and for pro-
viding social workers a first step on the ladder of
public service. Such opportunities should be cele-
brated, not dismissed.

Public policy involves the kind of power that oc-
curs in three basic forms: money, votes, and networks.
Although these resources have been the staple of pol-
itics, the information age requires players to possess a
higher level of sophistication. To be competitive, one
must have command of information systems, large
data sets, and complex decision menus.

If social work can educate students about these
methods and begin to insert itself into the policy
environment, the profession will again become
an influential force in social policy. On the other
hand, if the profession rests on its historic laurels, it
will remain tangential in the policy arena. Such an
eventuality would essentially waste the substantial
assets that social work brings to social affairs: a dis-
tinguished legacy, the altruism of the young, and a
unique moral imperative.

This edition of American Social Welfare Policy
attempts to provide the information necessary for
understanding social welfare policy nationally and
internationally. In addition to discussing the basic
concepts, policies, and programs that comprise

American welfare state, the text includes infor-
mation on the voluntary nonprofit sector, the for-
profit corporate sector, and the new strategy in
social policy (i.e., tax policy and expenditures).
The penultimate chapter examines food policy, and
environmental and sustainability issues. The final
chapter examines the influence of global capital-
ism, a development that not only weds the devel-
oped nations to the undeveloped nations but also
in the process shifts capital and jobs in unprece-
dented numbers. In recognition of our increasingly
interconnected global environment, this edition has
put more emphasis on international social welfare
policy.

Acknowledgments
The reviewers of this and previous editions have
provided an invaluable service in identifying de-
ficiencies. Earlier editions were aided by Dr.
Stephen Thornton, Deanna Machin, Dr. Peter
Kindle, and Crystal Joyce. In addition, the follow-
ing reviewers contributed useful suggestions for
this edition: Karen Tabb Dina, University of Illi-
nois at Urbana-Champaign; Savvas Georgiades,
University of North Carolina at Pembroke; Justine
McGovern, Lehman College CUNY; and Clarence
Williams, Grambling State University. This edition
owes a debt to Elisa Arrington. In anticipation of
the next edition, comments by students and faculty
are welcome. The authors can be reached via email:
Howard Karger at [email protected] and David
Stoesz at [email protected]

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v

Howard Karger (right) is professor, Hawai’i Pacific
University, School of Social Work. David Stoesz
(left) is professor, Flinders University/Carnegie
Mellon University-Australia. Howard and David
have been friends and colleagues for more than
three decades. In addition to eight editions of

American Social Welfare Policy, they have
coauthored three other books: The Politics of
Child Abuse in America (with Lela Costin) (Ox-
ford University Press, 1996); Reconstructing the
American Welfare State (Rowman and Little-
field, 1992); and (with Terry Carrillo), A Dream
Deferred ( Aldine, 2010). Howard’s book, Short-
changed: Life and Debt in the Fringe Economy
(Berret-Koehler, 2005) examines the financial
practices and products that exploit millions of
American families. The book won the 2006 Inde-
pendent Publishers Award in Finance/Investment/
Economics. David’s book, Quixote’s Ghost: The
Right, the Liberati, and the Future of Social Policy
(Oxford University Press, 2005), explains how con-
servatives have assumed control of domestic policy
and proposes a new framework for social policy.
Quixote’s Ghost won the 2006 Pro- Humanitate
Literary Award.

a b o u t t H e a u t H o r S

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vii

PArt ONE American Social
Welfare Policy

cHaPter 1
Social Policy and the American
Welfare State 1

cHaPter 2
A Brief History of the American Social
Welfare State 25

cHaPter 3
Social Welfare Policy Research 47

cHaPter 4
Discrimination in American Society 59

cHaPter 5
Poverty in America 101

PArt tWO the Voluntary and
For-Profit Social Sectors

cHaPter 6
The Voluntary Sector Today 131

cHaPter 7
Privatization and Human Service
Corporations 145

PArt tHrEE the Government Sector

cHaPter 8
The Making of Governmental Policy 167

cHaPter 9
Tax Policy and Income Distribution 187

cHaPter 10
Social Insurance Programs 205

cHaPter 11
Public Assistance Programs 227

cHaPter 12
The American Health Care System 247

cHaPter 13
Mental Health and Substance
Abuse Policy 281

cHaPter 14
Criminal Justice 299

cHaPter 15
Child Welfare Policy 317

cHaPter 16
Housing Policies 333

cHaPter 17
The Politics of Food Policy and Rural Life 359

PArt FOUr the American Welfare
State in Perspective

cHaPter 18
The American Welfare State in
International Perspective 389

b r i e f c o n t e n t S

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ix

PArt ONE American Social
Welfare Policy

cHaPter 1
Social Policy and the
American Welfare State 1

Definitions of Social Welfare Policy 4

Social Problems and Social Welfare Policy 4

Social Work and Social Policy 5

Values, ideology, and Social Welfare Policy 5

the Political economy of american Social Welfare 6

the u.S. economic continuum 7
Keynesian Economics 7 • Conservative or
Free Market Economics 8 • The Global
Financial Crisis (GFC) 11 • Democratic
Socialism 11

the u.S. Political continuum 12
Liberalism and Left-of-Center Movements 13 •
classical conservatives and the far right 15

the Welfare Philosophers and the
neoconservative think tanks 17

conclusion 18
Discussion Questions 22 • Notes 22

cHaPter 2
A Brief History of the American Social
Welfare State 25

early antecedents of Welfare Statism 26
Judeo-christian Doctrine and Social Welfare 26

the english Poor Laws 27

the Poor in colonial america 28

Social Welfare in the civil War era 29

industrialization and the Voluntary Sector 29
Social Darwinism 31 • Religion
and Social Welfare 31 • Charity
Organization Societies 32 • Settlement
Houses 33 • African American
Associations 35 • The Social Casework
Agency 36 • The Progressive Movement 37

The Great Depression and the Modern
Welfare State 37

the Post-World War ii Welfare State 39

the Languishing Social Welfare State 41

conclusion 43
Discussion Questions 44 • Notes 45

cHaPter 3
Social Welfare Policy Research 47

a Proposed Model for Policy analysis 50
Historical Background of the Policy 51 •
Problems That Necessitate the Policy 52 •
Policy Description 52 • Policy Analysis 52

researching and analyzing a Social
Policy assignment 54

Social Policy research and the internet 55

conclusion 56
Discussion Questions 56 • Notes 56

cHaPter 4
Discrimination in American Society 59

Discrimination 60

racism 61

the Minority Middle class 61

african americans 63
The Demography of African Americans 63 •
African Americans in Poverty 63 • The
“Diswelfare” of african americans 63

Hispanic americans 66
Hispanic Poverty and Income 67 • Diversity in
the Hispanic Population 67

american indians 67

asian americans 68

immigrants and immigration 69
immigration-based Discrimination in europe 71

Women and Society 73
Violence and Sexism 73 • The Feminization
of Poverty 73 • Myths around Women and
Work 75 • Income and Job Disparities between
Men and Women 76 • Day Care: A Barrier to
Female Employment 76 • Other Obstacles
Faced by Working Women 78 • Abortion and
Women’s Rights 79 • Gender Discrimination
and Violence in an international context 80

Gays and Lesbians: Two Populations at Risk 82
Gay Rights 84 • Gays and Lesbians in
the Military 84 • Gay and Lesbian
Family Life 85 • AIDS and the Gay
community 86

c o n t e n t S

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x c o n t e n t s

ageism 87
Elderly Poverty and Social Programs 87 •
Health care and the elderly 88

People with Disabilities 88

Legal attempts to remedy Discrimination 91
Desegregation and the civil rights
Movement 91 • Affirmative Action 91

conclusion 92
Discussion Questions 93 • Notes 93

cHaPter 5
Poverty in America 101

theories on Poverty 102
Culture of Poverty 102 • Eugenics and
Poverty 103 • The Progressive
understanding of Poverty 103

Who Makes up the Poor? 104

Measuring Poverty 106
Measuring the Depth of Poverty 109

families and Poverty 109
Child Support Enforcement 109 • Children
in Poverty 110 • Poverty and the
elderly 110

the rural Poor 110

Work and Poverty 111
A Profile of the Working Poor 111 • Why Are
There Working Poor? 111 • Underemployment
and Unemployment 112 • Dual Labor
Markets 113 • Wages and Poverty 114

Strategies Developed to combat Poverty 116
IDAs 116 • Three Approaches to Combat
Poverty 116

america’s fringe economy 118
the unbanked and the functionally
Poor 119 • Credit and the
Poor 119 • Transportation in the Fringe
economy 122

World Poverty 123

conclusion 125
Discussion Questions 126 • Notes 126

PArt tWO the Voluntary and
For-Profit Social Sectors

cHaPter 6
The Voluntary Sector Today 131

traditional Providers 132

the independent Sector 133

advancing Social Justice 135
The United Way 136 • Elite Philanthropy 136

the future of the Voluntary Sector 138
Commercialization 138 •
Faith-Based Social Services 139 •
Social Entrepreneurship 140 •
issues facing the Voluntary Sector 141

conclusion 141
Discussion Questions 142 • Notes 142

cHaPter 7
Privatization and Human Service
Corporations 145

Privatization issues 147
Commercialization 148 • Preferential
Selection 148 • Dual Levels of Care 149 •
Cost-Effectiveness 149 • Oligopolization 150

the challenge of Privatization 150

unions and the Private Sector 151

Social contributions of business 153

corporate influence on Social Welfare Policy 154

the future of corporate involvement in
Social Welfare 155

Human Service corporations 155

Consolidation and Growth in New Human
Service Markets 157

Nursing Homes 157 • Hospital
Management 157 • Health Maintenance
Organizations 157 • Child Care 159 •
Home Health Care 159 •
Corrections 159 • Public Welfare 159

Private Practice 160
the future of Private Practice 162

conclusion 162
Discussion Questions 163 • Notes 163

PArt tHrEE the Government Sector

cHaPter 8
The Making of Governmental Policy 167

technical aspects of the Policy Process 168

a critical analysis of the Policy Process 170

the Policy Process 171
Social Stratification 171 •
Formulation 172 • Legislation 173 •
The Fiscal Cliff and Sequestration 177 •
Implementation 178 •
Evaluation 178 • Marginalization 179

Social Work and advocacy organizations 181
advocacy organizations and the new Policy
institutes 182

Political Practice 183

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c o n t e n t s xi

conclusion 184
Discussion Questions 185 • Notes 185

cHaPter 9
Tax Policy and Income Distribution 187

History of u.S. tax Policy 188

federal taxes 189

taxes, Spending, and the Debt 190

tax Policy and Special interests 192

income Distribution 193

State tax Policy and the Poor 194

the efficiency of tax Policy in reducing Poverty 195
tax expenditures as antiPoverty Policy 196

the anti-tax Movement 197

the Debate over economic inequality 198

conclusion 201
Discussion Questions 201 • Notes 202

cHaPter 10
Social Insurance Programs 205

Definition of Social insurance 206

the background of Social insurance 207

the financial organization of Social insurance 207

Key Social insurance Programs 208
OASDI 208 • Unemployment
Compensation 210 • Workers’
compensation 212

the Social Security Dilemma 212
arguments against the current Social Security
System 213 • Arguments for the Current
Social Security System 213 • Social Security
in Trouble 214 • The Long-Term Prospects for
Social Security 214

Medicare (Hospital insurance and Supplementary
Medical Insurance) 216

Lingering Problems in the Social Security System 216

reforming Social Security 217
Privatizing Social Security 217

Pension Systems in Selected industrialized
countries 218

Canada’s Retirement Income System 218 •
Retirement in the United Kingdom 219 • The
chilean experiment in Privatizing Social
Security 220 • Germany’s Social Security
System 220 • The Greek Pension
System 221 • The Australian Retirement
System 221

conclusion 222
Discussion Questions 222 • Notes 222

cHaPter 11
Public Assistance Programs 227

assumptions and Myths about Public
assistance 228

aid to families with Dependent children 231
the Personal responsibility and Work opportunity
Reconciliation Act of 1996 232 • Has
the PRWORA Worked? 235 • Teenage
Pregnancy 236

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) 237
Problems in SSi 238

General Assistance 239

trends and issues in Public assistance 239
the transformation of Welfare Policy into
Labor Policy 239 • Welfare to Work
(Workfare) 241 • Welfare Behaviorism 241

conclusion 242
Discussion Questions 243 • Notes 243

cHaPter 12
The American Health Care System 247

the uninsured 248

the organization of Medical Services 248

Major Public Health Programs: Medicare,
Medicaid, and S-cHiP 250

Medicare 250 • Medicaid 254 •
the children’s Health insurance Program
(CHIP) 256

the Health care crisis 256
overview of u.S. Health care expenditures 256

explaining the High cost of u.S. Health care 258
Hospital Costs 259 • Physicians’
Salaries 259 • The Pharmaceutical
industry 260

cutting Health care costs 261
Managed Care 261 • The Underinsured 263

Gun Violence and Health Care Policy 263
The Debate around Gun Control 264 •
What can be Done 266

u.S. Health care in international Perspective 266
Comparative Analysis: Health Care in Canada,
the united Kingdom, and australia 267

reforming u.S. Health care 271
National Health Service 271 • National
Health Insurance 271 • Incremental
Reform 272 • The Patient Protection and
Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148) 273

conclusion 274
Discussion Questions 275 • Notes 275

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xii c o n t e n t s

cHaPter 13
Mental Health and Substance
Abuse Policy 281

Mental Health reform 282

the community Mental Health centers acts 283

Deinstitutionalization 283

the advent of Psychotropic Medication 285

the Psychopharmacological Scandal 286

children’s Mental Health 288

Mental Health and Substance abuse
funding 289

Parity for Mental Health care 290

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder 291

Substance abuse 292
Alcohol Abuse 292 • Drug Abuse 293

conclusion 294
Discussion Questions 294 • Notes 295

cHaPter 14
Criminal Justice 299

History of u.S. criminal Justice 300

the criminal Justice System 301

Juvenile Justice 303

the new Jim crow 306

the War on Drugs 308

the underclass and “Moral Poverty” 309

the Prison industrial complex 310

Legalization of Drugs 312

Police Violence 313

conclusion 313
Discussion Questions 314 • Notes 314

cHaPter 15
Child Welfare Policy 317

History of u.S. child Welfare Policy 318

Protective Services for children 320

foster care for children 323

adoption 325

Head Start 326

emerging issues in child Welfare 326
Day Care 327 • Maternal and Child
Health 327 • Teen Pregnancy 327

conclusion 328
Discussion Questions 329 • Notes 329

cHaPter 16
Housing Policies 333

overview of Housing Legislation 334

The Federal Government and Low-Income Housing
Programs 336

issues in Housing Policy 340
Trends in U.S. Housing 340 • Problems in
Homeownership 341 • Homeownership and
the Subprime Mortgage Crisis 341 • The
Downside of Homeownership 342 • Problems
in Finding Affordable Rental Housing 343 •
Gentrification 344 • Overcrowded and
Deficient Housing 345 • Other Factors
affecting Housing 345

Homelessness 346
characteristics of the Homeless
Population 346 • Trends in
Homelessness 348 • Attempts to Address
Homelessness 349

Housing reform 350

Housing in an international context 351
comparison of u.S. and european
Housing 351 • Public Housing 352

conclusion 352
Discussion Questions 353 • Notes 353

cHaPter 17
The Politics of Food Policy and
Rural Life 359

the contradictions of american food Policy 360

Hunger in the united States 361

Governmental Food Programs 362
SNAP (Formerly Called Food Stamps): A
Description of the Program 362 • SNAP:
Who is in the Program, and What Does it
Cost? 364 • Special Supplemental
nutrition Program for Women, infants,
and Children (WIC) 364 • Other Food
Programs 366 • Have the Food Programs
Worked? 367

farming in the united States 370
Governmental Farm Policies 370 • Biofuels,
Fracking, and Farming 371 • The Face of
u.S. farming 372

farmworkers 374

issues in american farming 376
The Corporatization of American Farming 377 •
Genetic Engineering 377 • Global
Trade 378 • Food Safety 378 • Local
Selling 379 • Organic Farming 379 •
Sustainable Development 379 • Climate
change 379

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c o n t e n t s xiii

conclusion 382
Discussion Questions 382 • Notes 383

PArt FOUr the American Welfare
State in Perspective

cHaPter 18
The American Welfare State
in International Perspective 389

typologies of Welfare States 390

american exceptionalism 391

the Welfare State in transition 393

ranking national Development 394

the fourth World 395

capability Poverty 397

international aid 399

Global Capital 399

the future 401

conclusion 402
Discussion Questions 403 • Notes 403

Glossary 407

index 415

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1

Social Policy and the
American Welfare State

C h a p t e r 1

Source: Jeff Greenberg/the Image Works

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2 pa r t 1 american Social Welfare policy

Social welfare policy is arguably best viewed through the lens of political economy (i.e., the
interaction of economic, political, and ideological
forces). This chapter provides an overview of the
American welfare state through that lens. In par-
ticular, it examines various definitions of social
welfare policy, the relationship between social pol-
icy and social problems, and the values and ideol-
ogies that drive social welfare in the United States.
In addition, the chapter examines the effects of
ideology on the U.S. welfare state, including the
important roles played by conservatism and lib-
eralism (and their variations) in shaping welfare
policy. An understanding of social welfare policy
requires the ability to grasp the economic justi-
fications and consequences that underlie policy
decisions. As such, this chapter contains a brief
introduction to Keynesianism, free market eco-
nomics, socialism, and communitarianism, among
others.

American social welfare is in transition. Start-
ing with the Social Security Act of 1935, liberals
argued that federal social programs were the best
way to help the disadvantaged. Now, after 70 years
of experimenting with the welfare state, a discern-
ible shift has occurred. The conservatism of U.S.
culture—so evident in the Reagan, Bush (both
Bushes), and even Clinton and Obama presiden-
cies—has left private institutions to shoulder more
of the welfare burden. For proponents of social jus-
tice, the suggestion that the private sector should
assume more responsibility for welfare represents a
retreat from the hard-won governmental, social leg-
islation that provided essential benefits to millions
of Americans. Justifiably, social advocates fear the
loss of basic goods and services during the transition
in social welfare.

The election of Barack Obama as the 44th
President of the United States in 2008 not only
broke a racial barrier but also promised to sweep
away the strident conservatism that had defined the
presidency of George W. Bush. The Obama victory,
with 52 percent of the vote and increased Demo-
cratic majorities in both chambers of Congress,
heartened liberals who had anticipated an expan-
sion of government social programs. However, the
euphoria among liberals soon gave way to despair
as the Democratic Party lost control of the House
of Representatives and barely held on to the Senate
in the midterm elections of 2010. Although Obama
won the presidency for a second term in 2012, the

midterm election of 2014 saw the Democratic Party
also losing control of the Senate.

While liberal pundits hailed the resurgence
of “a vast new progressive movement,”1 struc-
tural limits and the emergence of a strong reac-
tive element would restrain Obama’s ambitions.
Massive deficits left by the Bush administration,
compounded by a severe global financial crisis
and two unfunded wars, meant that economic
issues would trump other priorities. Reduced tax
revenues would impede the ability of the govern-
ment to meet existing obligations, let alone expand
social programs. Obama’s centrist inclinations to
build bipartisan support for his legislative agenda
failed as newly elected extremist Tea Party legisla-
tors squashed most of his attempts at compromise.
Instead, ideological

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  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

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Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

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Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

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Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

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