answered: USE 3 REFERENCES  FOR EACH RESPONSE Master of Science in Nursing   5


Master of Science in Nursing  

5 hours ago

Chijioke Ikegwuonu 



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Beneficence is an ethical concept that puts the physician under the obligation to act in the best interest of the patient and supports a number of moral values of preventing harm and defending the rights of others. It also helps remove conditions that will cause harm, help persons with mental health disabilities and rescue them from danger (Bipeta. 2019). Across the four articles, beneficence appears to be cutting across all the steps of decision making regardless of the decision maker. Psychiatric patients, whether adolescents or adults, may not have mental or legal capacity to understand what beneficence to their care to their care implies. The discussion summarizes four articles related to beneficence in the provision of psychiatry care to patients with mental illnesses.

            Ethical considerations of beneficence refers to the obligations of healthcare professionals to act in the best interest of the patient by enhancing morality and supporting several moral aspects to protect and defend the rights of patients. In their report, Zhang-Jiang et al. (2020) provides crucial insight on the application of beneficence model as an ethical approach in making clinical decisions in the surgical unit. Based on the article, beneficence as a duty is a legal and moral obligation. In their observation, proper clinical decision making is dependent on the decision making capacity and legal empowerment of the patient. Adult patients must be assisted to make decisions about their own care while maintaining the intention for medical good. For children, decision making is in the hands of parents/guardians as long as they do not have the capacity to make reasonable decisions. Legal aspects of beneficence comes in case of malpractice or when the physician goes beyond their jurisdiction of practice. Bipeta, R. (2019) highlights the Mental Healthcare Act 2017(MHCA) which outlines that every mentally ill person have the beneficent right to dimity, and protection from inhuman, cruel and degrading treatment. Any contrary to that is punishable by law.

            Sussman et al., (2018) state the need for clinicians to watch for potential ethical dilemmas coming from the use of technology. Adult psychiatric patients need to physically be examined to fully benefit from care. Adolescents are often fond of phones and therefore, clinicians and nurses are advised to respect the autonomy of patients, but whenever need be, they should be examined in close proximity of parents/guardians. On the other hand, Mohammad et al. (2018) discovered that there should be an existing stable knowledge on ethico-legal issues in mental health nursing irrespective of gender, age, marital status and years of experience. The ethico-legal aspects can jail any practitioner who detains mentally ill patients in nursing homes without consent or without any benefitting treatment. This aspect cuts across many states in America.

In my State, legal beneficence for adults includes exercising compassion while understanding the value systems of patients and determining good depending on a person’s preference. Among adolescents and children, legal considerations includes acting in the child’s best interest. However, there are complicated difficulties in assessing what the child’s best interests are and the standards to be upheld. This information is very crucial in my practice as it serves as an obligation as a healthcare provider to protect my patients from harm by preventing situations while promoting good ones. I also intend to help persons with disabilities and rescue persons in danger.





Bipeta, R. (2019). Legal and ethical aspects of mental health care. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine41(2), 108-112.

Mohammed, Q. Q., Mohammed, E. H., Karim, M. H., & Hassan, N. A (2018). Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge about Ethical and Legal Issues in Mental Health Nursing at Psychiatric Teaching Hospitals in Baghdad City. doi: 10.9790/1959-0603034347

Sussman, N., & DeJong, S. M. (2018). Ethical considerations for mental health clinicians working with adolescents in the digital age. Current Psychiatry Reports20(12), 1-8.

Zhang-Jiang, S., & Tredwell, S. (2020). Using the beneficence model as an ethical approach to surgical decision making: A case report. British Columbia Medical Journal62(10).

2 hours ago

olumide ojehomon 



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Ethics and Negligence

Negligence in healthcare means practicing below the standard of care for a certain specialty. Psychiatric nurse practitioners should become familiar with legal issues surrounding this practice area to ensure best practices for patients and to avoid malpractice litigation and licensing issues. Children have unique needs because of their inability to fully express the symptoms of the psychiatric conditions and the law allows their parents or guardians to provide consent for their healthcare. Therefore, a psychiatric nurse practitioner is the child’s advocate and must ensure the child receives the necessary care.

Psychiatric nurse practitioners owe their patients a duty of care and the associated legal liability that is imposed whenever a patient is admitted to the hospital for care (Huang et al., 2015). Therefore, a charge of negligence against a nurse can arise from almost any action or failure to act that causes damage to patient health. It is the child and adolescent psychiatrist’s primary responsibility to act on behalf of the needs of the child or adolescent patient and their families(AACAP, 2014). Negligence, according to the American Journal of Nursing can occur in the following circumstances:Failure to follow standards of care, failure to use equipment responsibly, failure to communicate, failure to document, failure to assess and monitor, and failure to act as a patient advocate.

Psychiatric nurse practitioners must address the needs of special groups including children from LGBTQ groups without discrimination or neglect due to procedure. Childhood gender nonconformity is shown through variation from norms in gender role behaviors such as toy preferences, rough-and-tumble play, aggression, or playmate gender (Adelson, & Child, 2012). It is necessary to identify these characters and provide the support that does not cause the child of their family to feel neglected.

Ethical issues may arise when providing psychiatric care for both children and adult populations. Psychologists’ ethical responsibilities may conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authorities. In such cases, it is necessary for the practitioner to clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the Ethics Code, and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code.



Adelson, S. L., & of Child, T. A. A. (2012). Practice parameters on gay, lesbian, or bisexual sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and gender discordance in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & adolescent psychiatry51(9), 957-974.

APA, (.2017). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Retrieved from

Huang, H. M., Sun, F. K., & Lien, Y. F. (2015). Nurse practitioners, medical negligence and crime: A case study. Clinical Nursing Studies3(4), 21-28.

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