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COMPARE ACROSS GENRES
Now that you’ve read “After the Hurricane,”
read an excerpt from Ninth Ward to see how
this work of historical fiction tells another
story of survival related to Hurricane Katrina.
As you read, think about how the author uses
setting and language to describe the narrator’s
experience. After you read, you will collaborate
with a small group on a final project.

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from Ninth Ward

QUICK START

What do you say to yourself when the going gets tough? What if you
had to coach a friend or a sibling through a difficult time? Write three
encouraging things you would say.

ANALYZE HISTORICAL AND
CULTURAL SETTING

The setting of a work of literature is the time and place of the action.
In historical fiction, the time period and culture play a significant role
in both plot and characterization. This selection’s setting is one area of
New Orleans during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. As the text’s
fictional characters respond to the setting, the author reveals the
characters’ important qualities and values.
• Setting can influence characters’values, beliefs, and emotions.
• Setting can affect how characters act and interact with others.
• Characters develop as they respond to historical and cultural
elements throughout the story. Their response may suggest the
story’s theme.

ANALYZE AUTHOR’S USE OF LANGUAGE

Mood is the feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader.
Descriptive words, imagery, and figurative language all influence the
mood of a work. Ninth Ward is a first-person narrative, so the mood
created by the narrator’s voice can reveal something about the main
character. As you read, note how language helps create the mood of
the text, and what the mood reveals about the text’s characters and
theme. Use a chart like the one below.

GET READY 0

GENRE ELEMENTS:
HISTORICAL FICTION
•is set in the past

• includes real places and real
events of historical importance

• can be a short story or a novel

• has the basic features of

realistic fiction, including plot,
characters, conflict, setting,
and theme

TEXT MOOD

TaShon lifts his head and wipes his eyes. | expectant
He looks far-off.

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MY IDEAS ABOUT CHARACTER AND THEME

TaShon is someone who takes time to think
before speaking.

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CRITICAL VOCABULARY
fortitude endure horizon angular focus
To see how many Critical Vocabulary words you already know,
use them to complete the sentences.
1. Happy memories gave them_to survive the challenge.

•;

2. The performer had to_ his attention to walk on the
tightrope.

3. Sharp, straight lines meet to create a/an _ pattern.
4. The setting sun slipped beneath the . .
5. He could not. _ walking against the icy cold wind.
LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS
Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun or
another pronoun. Personal pronouns, such as // me, he, she, we, us,
you, and it, refer to the person making a statement, the person(s)
being addressed, or the person(s) or thing(s) the statement is about.
The helicopter doesn’t seem to see us. It keeps flying.
The personal pronoun us refers to the narrator, Lanesha, and her
neighbor TaShon. It refers to an object, the helicopter. As you read,
notice the author’s use of pronouns.

NOTICE & NOTEANNOTATION MODEL
As you read, note words the author uses to indicate setting.1 Notice the effect of the author’s use of language on the mood and

j characterization, and how mood may indicate theme. You can also mark
evidence that supports your own ideas. In the model, you can see one
reader’s notes about Ninth Ward.

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11 No land. Only sky and dirty water

2 TaShon has his head buried in Spots fur.
He’s crying full-out—sobbing like the world has
ended and Noah hasn’t landed his ark.

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BACKGROUND

Jewell Parker Rhodes (b. 1 954) loved to read and write as a child.
Ninth Ward /5 her first published book for young people. The Ninth
Ward is one of seventeen wards, or administrative districts, in New
Orleans. The largest and easternmost ward, the Ninth Ward is divided
by a shipping channel and another waterway. When Hurricane Katrina
struck New Orleans in 2005, the Ninth Ward received the greatest
damage. Many residents lost Their lives and homes in the
hurricane.

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PREPARE TO COMPARE

As you read, pay attention to the selection’s mood and setting. Note
how characters respond to events. Think about how these elements
may help you recognize the selection’s theme, or message.

1 No land. Only sky and dirty water.
2 TaShon has his head buried in Spots fur. He’s crying

full-out—sobbing like the world has ended and Noah hasn’t
landed his ark.1

3 I want to sit and cry, too. But it’s almost dawn, and I
think when there’s light, someone will surely find us. I also
think, still dark, I’ve got to make sure TaShon doesn’t fall off
the roof into the water.

Notice & Note ^•ws’wsw

Use the side margins to notice
and note signposts in the text.

ANALYZE HISTORICAL AND
CUITORM SETTING
Annotate: Mark words in
paragraphs 1 -3 that show the
setting.

Identify: Which elements tell
you about the place and time?
Are there any elements that tell
you about the cultural setting?

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* Noah hasn’t landed his ark: in the biblical flood story, Noah builds an ark, or
large boat, to save his family and animals of every kind from a flood.

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NOTICE 8f NOTE

fortitude
(for’ti-tood) n. To have fortitude
is to show strength of mind and
face difficulty with courage.

endure
(en-ddor’) v. To endure is to
carry on despite difficulty or
suffering.

ANALYZE AUTHOR’S USE
OF LANGUAGE
Annotate: Mark the words in
paragraph 8 that help establish
the mood of this scene.

Analyze: How would you
describe the mood here?

LANGUAGE CONVENTtONS
Mark the pronouns in the first
sentence of paragraph 12. Who
are the pronouns referring to?

horizon
(hs-ri’zsn) n. The horizon is the
intersection of the earth and
sky.

angular
(ang’gys-lsr) adj. Something
that is angular, such as a
peaked roof, has two sides that
form an angle.

4 I feel tired, sad. Even though I expect to see her as a ghost, I
know I’ll still miss the flesh and blood Mama Ya-Ya.2 The warm
hands. Her making breakfast. And me resting my head upon
her shoulder. I’ll miss talking to her. Listening to her stories.

5 TaShon lifts his head and wipes his eyes. He looks far-off.
For a minute, I think hes going to be his quiet old self, and
pretend to disappear. Then, he says softly, “Fortitude.”

6 “Strength to endure.”
7 “That’s right. We’re going to show fortitude.”
8 TaShon and I scoot closer, our arms and legs touching, I

put my arms around him; he puts his arms around me. Neither
of us moves. I know we are both thinking, murmuring in our
minds, over and over again, “Fortitude. Fortitude. Fortitude.”

9 Sunrise. As far as my eye can see, there is water.
10 The Mississippi is brown, filled with leaves, branches, and

pieces of folks’ lives. I see a plastic three-wheeler tangled in
algae. I see a picture frame with a gap-toothed boy smiling in
black and white. I see a red car, a Ford, floating.

11 Overhead, I hear a helicopter. It sounds like a lawn mower
in the sky.

12 Me and TaShon start yelling, waving our hands. Here,
over here.” The helicopter doesn’t seem to see us. It keeps flying
south. Its big bird wings circling and the roar of its engine
getting softer.

13 TaShon is cursing now. I haven’t the heart to say, “Watch
your mouth. Im positive the ‘copter man saw us. How come he
didn’t stop? Lift us in the air with rope?

14 I start trembling and look around my neighborhood. The
horizon is like none I’ve seen before. Just tips of houses. Tops or
halves of trees. Lampposts hacked off by water. Rooftops—some
flat, some angular—most, empty.

15 Far left, I see a man and woman sitting on a roof, their feet
in the water. Two blocks east, I see what I think is an entire
family. Five, six people, all different sizes, waving white sheets.3
I hear them screaming, calling for help.

16 Where are the others? At the Superdome? Safe in Baton
Rouge?4

2 Mama Ya-Ya: Lanesha’s elderly caretaker who has died during the water’s rise.
3 waving white sheets: in wartime, soldiers wave white flags to signal their

willingness to surrender to the enemy.
4 At the Superdome? Safe ui Baton Rouge?: the Superdome is the name of the

stadium in New Orleans that sheltered Katrina refugees. Baton Rouge is Louisiana’s
capital, and the city to which thousands of New Orleans residents fled to escapeHurricane Katrina.

224 Unit3

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17 TaShon says softly, “At least we made it out of the attic,
didn’t we, Lanesha?”

18 I look at TaShon. I should’ve known better. Should’ve
known that there was more to see about TaShon than he ever let
show. He’s a butterfly, too.

19 “Yes, we did,” I say. “We made it out”

20 No one is coming. All day and all night, we waited. Spot panted,
slept. TaShon swatted at mosquitoes and his feet turned itchy
red after he left them in the water to cool off. We are both
sunburned. Funny, I didn’t think black folks sunburned. But all
day in the sun, no shade, has made me and TaShon red faced.

. My cheeks and shoulders hurt like someone touched them with
a hot iron.

21 I keep focused on the horizon. Above it, I search for
helicopters. Below it, I search for signs of my neighbors.

22 I used to think the Mississippi was beautiful. Not anymore.
Up close, it is filled with garbage; clothes and furniture, ugly
catfish and eels.

23 My lips are cracked. I’m hungry. Thirsty. Tired. I tell TaShon
a hundred different Bible stories—all about hope. I tell him
about Moses, David and Goliath, and Noah’s ark.5 “Someone’s
coming,” I insist. “People know we’re here.” But I feel Spot, if he
could talk, would say, “That’s a lie;” then blink his big brown
eyes.

24 The moon is high. TaShon is feverish and asleep. His legs, up to
his knees, are bright red. His face is peeling.

25 I haven’t seen any ghosts either. Are they scared?
26 I murmur, “Mama Ya-Ya, help me. Momma, help me.”

But the night doesn’t answer. Nothing shimmers. There’s no
message from another world.

27 Day two since the flood. Day three since the hurricane.
28 No one has come to our rescue. There’s no TV. No radio.

No news from anywhere. The family that has been hollering for
help is quiet now.

29 I can’t make the Mississippi disappear. I cant make food
and water appear. But we’re going to go stir-crazy, get more and
more miserable.

30 I press my head to my hand. I feel dizzy.

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5Moses, David and Goliath, and Noah’s ark: in a set of stories from the Bible,
Moses is directed by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt; David is a boy who
killed Goliath, a giant warrior; and Noah’s ark is the large boat Noah built to save
his family and animals from a flood.

NOTICE & NOTE

AHA MOMENT

Notice & Note: What does
Lanesha realize about TaShon
in paragraphs 16-19? Mark
the words that show Lanesha
is realizing something about
TaShon’s character.

Interpret: What does Lanesha
mean when she compares
TaShon to a butterfly?

focus
(fo’kss) v. When you focus on
something, you keep attention
fixed on it.

ANALYZE AUTHOR’S USE
OF LANGUAGE
Annotate: Mark the words in
paragraph 23 that help show
mood.

Infer: What does the mood
suggest about the kind of
person the narrator is?

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Ninth Ward 225

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ANALYZE HISTORICAL AND
CULTURAL SETTING
Annotate: Mark the details in
paragraphs 34-40 that help
describe the scene.

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Predict: What do these details
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Lanesha andTaShon now face?

31 TaShon’s itching, rubbing his left foot against his right leg.
“Look. A rowboat.”

32 I exhale. “Mr. Henri’s! He liked catfish. He always gave some
to Mama Ya-Ya.”

33 TaShon’s eyes are bright.
34 I move to the left—careful not to slip in the water, my feet

angling on the roof. It’s slippery. .Water is in my tennis shoes.
The shingles are slick with oil and gunk.

35 I can barely see the house next door. Most of it is covered
with water. But a rowboat is floating, caught between our
two houses and a bigger willow tree that kept it from floating
down the street. It is maybe six, seven feet away. It’s south,
perpendicular to both our houses. “A sharp right angle.” Ifit’d
been parallel, it might’ve floated out—at least on the north side.
But the angle kept it safe.

36 “Do you think we can reach it?” asks TaShon. “The boat?”
37 I squint. The boat’s rope must be floating deep, loose inside

the water.

38 My arms aren’t long enough to push the boat free and I’m
not sure I can doggy-paddle to it.

39 “The angle’s all wrong.”
40 Well, right and wrong, I think. Right, cause being

perpendicular, it didn’t get swept away in the storm. Wrong,
cause being perpendicular, it needs to be unstuck.

41 I see TaShons shoulders sagging. Giving up.
42 How can I rescue a rowboat?
43 EVERYTHING IS MATH. Think, Lanesha.
44 I look about. There are all kinds of pieces of wood, trees

floating in the water. I see a long, thin trunk floating.
45 “TaShon. We’ve got to catch that tree.” It looks like a young

willow. Just a few years old.
46 I’m sure my hands can fit around its trunk. With effort, I

can hold it like a stick.

47 I lie down on my stomach, shouting, “Come on, come on!”
like a lunatic to the tree. It bobs left, then right. Then turns
sideways.

48 “We’ve got to grab it, TaShon!”
49 TaShon lies beside me on his stomach, too. We flap our

hands in the water, trying to make it draw near. Trying to create
another current in the muddy tide.

50 “It’s coming,” hollers TaShon. “It’s coming.”
5i “Brace yourself.” Though the tree is moving slow, it’ll be

heavy. “Don’t fall! Don’t fall in”53

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226 Unit3

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52 I stretch my arms wide, clawing at the water, trying to move
the trunk closer. I strain, feeling the pull in my shoulders. Water
is lapping, almost to my chin.

53 I clutch bark. A piece cracks away in my hand.
54 “Get it, get it,” TaShon screams. His arms are too short. The

trunk is floating by.
55 I inch my body further, my hips and legs still touching the

roof. Inhaling, I plunge forward. My arms are around the tree.

CHECKYOUR UNDERSTANDING
Answer these questions before moving on to the Analyze the Text
section on the following page.

1 Which sentence from the text suggests that Lanesha and TaShon
want to be rescued?

A The horizon is like none I’ve seen before.

B I see a red car, a Ford, floating.

C / think when there’s light, someone will surely find us.
D ‘Yes, we did;’ I say. “We made it out.”

2 In paragraph 2, the narrator says, “Noah hasn’t landed his ark”to —
F introduce another character in the story
G show that the story is set in the time of the Bible
H show thatTaShon enjoys Bible stories

J show that the land has been covered by floodwater

3 Which idea is supported by information at the conclusion of the
selection?

A Lanesha has faith that Spot will help them escape.
B Lanesha is determined to save them.

C Lanesha no longer enjoys telling Bible stories.
D Lanesha is very certain that they will be rescued.

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Ninth Ward 227

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RESPOND

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ANALYZE THE TEXT

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RESBARCHTIP
Use the search words

“image of_”to find
photographs of an event. Type
“map of_”to help you
understand the geography of
an area. Try the search words
“history of Ninth Ward” to find
websites about the Ninth Ward.

Evaluate your search results by
looking for information about
the organization that runs the
site.

Support your responses with evidence from the text. llj NOTEBOOK
1. Analyze Reread paragraphs 1-3 and note details about setting

and character traits. How is Ihe historical setting related to the
characters?

2. Draw Conclusions Review the author’s use of language in
paragraph 8. How do mood and characterization suggest the text’s
theme?

3. Summarize Review paragraphs 9-1 1. How does the text help you
understand the novel’s cultural setting?

4. Compare Review paragraphs 3 and 13. How would you compare
the narrator’s attitude in the two passages? Explain how Lanesha’s
character has changed over time.

5. Notice & Note Review paragraphs 36-48. What does Lanesha
realize about their situation? Explain how Lanesha uses this
realization to help TaShon overcome his sense of hopelessness.

RESEARCH

Thecity of New Orleans is divided into areas called “wards.” The Ninth
Ward suffered badly from Hurricane Katrina. Investigate the history of
the Ninth Ward, from the time before Hurricane Katrina to the present.
Use a chart like the one shown to record relevant information from
reliable sources.

NINTH WARD

FACT

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SOURCE

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Connect Is there information online about the history of your own
city or neighborhood? Many areas have local historical societies that
also maintain websites. Go online to find information about your
community’s history.

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228 Unit 3

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CRITICAL VOCABULARY

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fortitude

endure

horizon

angular

focus

Practice and Apply Explain which vocabulary word is most closely
related to another word you know.

1. Which vocabulary word goes with sunsef? Why?

2. Which vocabulary word goes with strengthPWhy7

3. Which vocabulary word goes with lasting? Nhy7

4. Which vocabulary word goes with concentrate? Why7

5. Which vocabulary word goes with pointedPWhy7

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Go to the Vocabulary
Studio for more on context
clues.

VOCABULARY STRATEGY: Context Clues

Context clues are the words and phrases surrounding a word that
“provide hints about its meaning. Sometimes, you may find a context
clue in the same sentence as an unfamiliar word. The whole sentence
can also be a good clue. In Ninth Ward, the meaning of horizon is
suggested by its context.

I keep focused on the horizon. Above it, I search for helicopters.
Below it, I search for signs of my neighbors.

If you didn’t know what horizon means, the words “above it”and
“below if’are clues. Reread the whole paragraph for another context
clue: above the horizon she looks for helicopters (in the sky); below it,
she looks for people (on the ground or in the water). Together these
hints can help you guess that horizon is “the place where the earth and
sky meet.” Confirm your guess by checking a print or online dictionary.

Practice and Apply Find context clues for each of the following words
and guess the word’s meaning. Then, check your definition.

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fortitude (paragraph 5)

CONTEXT CLUES GUESSED DEFINITION DEFINITION

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endure (paragraph 6)

angular (paragraph 14)

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^Collaborate & Compare
COMPARE TEXTS

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MtlRRICANE
Poem by
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“After the Hurricane”and Ninth Ward use different genres, or types of
writing, to explore the effects of Hurricane Katrina on residents of New
Orleans. Even though the works are about a similar topic, they may
express different themes. Theme is a message about life or human
nature. Comparing texts from different genres—like poetry and
historical fiction—can give you a deeper understanding of the topic.
Often, writers do not state themes directly. Instead, readers must infer
themes based on information from the text and their own knowledge.
This information may include key statements, significant events, and
memorable images or symbols.

With your group, complete the chart by citing text evidence from the
selections.

“AFTER THE HURRICANE” NINTH WARD

Key Statements

Significant Events
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Memorable
Images

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ANALYZE THE TEXTS

Discuss these questions in your group.

1. Identify How are the speaker in “After the Hurricane”and the
narrator in Ninth 14/ard simitar?

2. Compare How are the circumstances faced by the poem’s speaker
and the novel’s narrator different? How are their responses to their
circumstances different?

3. Infer Think about the image of helicopters in both selections. What
ideas does this image suggest in each selection?

4. Draw Conclusions What have you learned from these selections
about what it takes to be a survivor?

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  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

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Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

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Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

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Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

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