answered: Instructions for Literature Review assignment: Based on the topic of interest, each student will wri

Instructions for Literature Review assignment:

Based on the topic of interest, each student will write a literature review that describes the issue under study (problem statement), background information obtained from previous research studies conducted on this topic, the purpose of the proposed research study, the significance of the research study (knowledge gaps that need to be filled), and the research question and hypothesis of the study.

The literature review should be 5to 7pages in length. It should be formatted in Times New Roman font, size 12, 1-inch margins, and double-spaced. All pages, except the cover page, should be numbered. Proper grammar and spelling are required.  

AT LEAST five (5) primary references should be used. PDF versions of these references must be uploaded along with the literature review. All references (primary and secondary) should be formatted in APA format. References must be included as in-text citations in the body of the literature review and in the reference list at the back. The reference list does not count towards the page limit.

i add the first revision bibliography

i need to reorder the research question to 

How biofilm affect the patient recovery at the hospital,

and in the Annotated Bibliography has to be focus in What type of patient have biofilm 

and what is biofilm and the general information

Helpful APA Resources – Purdue University APA Formatting and Style Guide:

Running head: Biofilm 2

Running head: Biofilm 2

Biofilm-Annotated bibliography

Institution:

Student’s name:

Date:

Introduction

The peer-review articles used give specific details on the definition of biofilms and factors considered in effective treatment of biofilms. Cells adhere to one another and, in some cases, to a surface, allowing biofilms to grow and spread. Extracellular polymeric substances bind these adherent cells together in this extracellular matrix. Biofilms can be found on both living and nonliving surfaces (Li et al, 2018). In attaining the purpose of the goal, the annotated bibliography provides data that answers the research question.

Research Question

What is biofilm and how is it treated?


Muhammad, M. H., Idris, A. L., Fan, X., Guo, Y., Yu, Y., Jin, X., … & Huang, T. (2020). Beyond risk: bacterial biofilms and their regulating approaches. Frontiers in microbiology11, 928.

This article defines biofilm based on the constituents that form the biofilms. Based on the review, bacterial biofilms are formed when secreted proteins and extracellular DNA bind to form dense, surface-attached communities. The growth of a bacterial biofilm can be divided into five distinct stages. The first stage is the reversible attachment phase, in which bacteria attach to surfaces in an unspecific manner. The second stage is the irreversible attachment phase, in which bacteria use adhesins to interact with a surface, synthesizing and releasing signaling molecules to detect one another’s presence, resulting in the formation of a microcolony. Healthcare, food production, and the oceans’ ecosystems health are all threatened by biofilms found in drinking water supply. Thus, biofilm control and prevention have become the focus of current studies. This paper provides a thorough introduction to biofilm development. A range of methodologies and approaches are used to tamper with bacterial adhesion and biofilm matrixes in an effort to remove harmful microorganisms from host environments. Plant protection, biotransformation, and wastewater treatment are just a few of the many uses for biofilms. Adhesion surfaces, QS, and environmental factors can all be manipulated to encourage beneficial biofilm growth.

Hartmann, R., Singh, P. K., Pearce, P., Mok, R., Song, B., Díaz-Pascual, F., … & Drescher, K. (2019). Emergence of three-dimensional order and structure in growing biofilms. Nature physics15(3), 251-256.

The review provides a comprehensive definition of biofilms based on the place of existence. According to the review, biological life forms known as biofilms are most common type of life on Earth and are self-replicating in crystals. The properties of conventional liquid crystals and granular particles are determined by the interaction possibilities between the molecules in the system. In growth-active biofilms, it’s not clear if potential-based descriptions can explain the observed morphologies, and which potentials are most relevant. Cell–cell interaction potential can be used to predict Vibrio cholerae biofilm development, emergent architecture, and local liquid–crystalline order at the microscopic scale. Biofilms’ microscopic creation and three-dimensional morphology are also shown to be affected by external fluid flow. It’s possible that in these active bacterial communities, mechanical cell–cell interactions, which can be controlled by modulating the production of different matrix components, may be the source of local cell membrane order and global biofilm architecture.” These findings focus on providing scientific evidence for improved spectrum theories of active matter, which are critical for controlling biofilm growth.

Thi, M. T. T., Wibowo, D., & Rehm, B. H. (2020). Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(22), 8671.

Biofilms are the subject of this article, which explains the characteristics and origins of a specific biofilm. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium that causes both acute and chronic infections in people with compromised immune systems, is known as an opportunistic human pathogen. Its infamous persistence in clinical settings is largely due to its propensity to form antibiotic-resistant biofilms. One of the most important functions of biofilm is to protect bacteria from the stresses of their environment by providing them with an extracellular scaffold of autogenic polymeric substances. Bacteria can colonize and persist on surfaces for longer when biofilm prevents phagocytosis. Biofilms of P. aeruginosa, including their development stages and molecular mechanisms of invasion and persistence conferred by biofilms, are reviewed throughout the research article. There are interspecies biofilms of P. aeruginosa and common streptococcus that inhibit the virulence of P. aeruginosa and may even improve disease conditions that are produced by the lysis of cells within the bacterial biofilm.

Otto, M. (2018). Staphylococcal biofilms. Microbiology spectrum6(4), 6-4.

There are different types of biofilms with each having distinct characteristics such as place of existence and survival. This peer-reviewed journal article investigates Staph biofilm development and its role in human health. There is also a summary of current strategies for the development of anti-biofilm therapies. Staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, are the most common cause of indwelling medical device infections. During device-associated infection, the bacteria’s biofilm phenotype facilitates increased resistance to antibiotics and host immune defenses. Biofilms have grown in popularity in recent years as a medium for the growth of microorganisms. It has also been discovered that biofilm-associated primary infections progress or originate in a wide range of human infections, and this is not an isolated phenomenon. In terms of biofilm research, Staphylococci are second only to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Because Staphylococci are common human skin colonizers, they are the most common cause of biofilm infections on surgically implanted indwelling medical devices. PJIs and other potentially fatal conditions, such as endocarditis and sepsis, are among the most severe of these infections.

Zhu, Y., Li, C., Cui, H., & Lin, L. (2020). Feasibility of cold plasma for the control of biofilms in food industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology99, 142-151.

This review explores into the use of cold plasma for anti-biofilm treatment of products that are manufactured as food within the industry. Biofilms may be able to control cold plasma technology through a variety of mechanisms. Cold plasma’s efficacy against biofilms is also examined in detail in the final chapter, as is the method’s final evaluation as a novel anti-biofilm’s method. Most significant threat to food standards today is biofilm infection, which is a fact that cannot be denied. Due to the biofilm architecture, biofilm microorganisms are more resilient to antibacterial treatment than planktonic microorganisms. By using cold plasma, a new non-thermal processing method, biofilms on food and food-contact materials can be effectively removed from their surfaces. The effectiveness of cold plasma diagnosis in removing biofilms has sparked a new wave of interest in this topic in recent years.

Li, C., Cornel, E. J., & Du, J. (2021). Advances and Prospects of Polymeric Particles for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms. ACS Applied Polymer Materials3(5), 2218-2232.

This review focuses on polymeric nanoparticles for the treatment of bacterial biofilms, with the goal of summarizing their preparation, mechanism, and recent advances. The researchers begin by investigating the physiological aspects of the bacterial biofilm. A list of physiological factors in biofilms, such as pH, enzymes, reactive oxygen species, hypoxia, and others, can be found here. Following this section, the antibiofilm therapeutic properties of polymer micelles, polymersomes, dendrimers, nanogels, and other polymeric nanoparticles will be discussed in great detail. Polymeric nanoparticles’ toxicity is also examined. Antibiofilm step approach on polymeric nanoparticles face both current and future challenges. Bacterial biofilms are receiving more attention than ever before from antibacterial researchers. A significant challenge remains in treating bacterial biofilms despite advances of antimicrobial agents, including antibiotics. This is due to the fact that bacterial biofilms avert the diffusion and accumulation of antimicrobials. It is possible to enter bacteria biofilms and alter the chemical properties of their microenvironment, allowing polymeric nanoparticles to engage with bacteria or discharge drugs that have been preloaded, due to their specific size and structure.” Polymeric nanoparticles with antibiofilm properties are being developed, and this bodes well for future antibiofilm therapeutics.

Barzegari, A., Kheyrolahzadeh, K., Khatibi, S. M. H., Sharifi, S., Memar, M. Y., & Vahed, S. Z. (2020). The battle of probiotics and their derivatives against biofilms. Infection and Drug Resistance13, 659.

Chronic infections, device-related diseases, and medical device malfunction are all examples of biofilm-related infections that have become a significant clinical issue. They are a global health threat because they are inaccessible by the immune system and antibiotics. Getting rid of biofilms by interfering with their adhesion as well as maturation has been found to be an effective strategy. Using probiotics and their derivatives to combat pathogenic biofilms has become increasingly popular in recent years. Probiotics are the subject of this review because they can help prevent bacterial biofilms from forming and maturing. Approximately 65% to 80% of microbial and chronic infections are caused by biofilms, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Microbial biofilms that form on implanted devices (such as aortic valve, catheters, and joint replacements) increase the risk of infection for patients in the hospital. The use of probiotics and their derivative products in the treatment of biofilm infections could benefit from further research.

Wu, Y. K., Cheng, N. C., & Cheng, C. M. (2019). Biofilms in chronic wounds: pathogenesis and diagnosis. Trends in biotechnology37(5), 505-517.

Treatment of biofilms requires a comprehensive understanding of the functionality of biofilms in a given set up. According to the review, biofilms have been shown to have a crucial function in the progression of chronic wound infections. It is a long time before chronic wound biofilms can be accurately diagnosed, despite advances in understanding of the underlying mechanism. As well as providing an overview of current diagnostic approaches based on morphological features, microbiology, and molecular assays for chronic wound biofilms, this review will discuss the mechanism by which biofilm formation takes place. There is still an unmet clinical need for wound blotting and transcriptomic analysis, for example. Wound healing has been slowed because of biofilms, which have recently gotten more attention. Multi-pronged strategies are employed in biofilm-based wound care in order to remove biofilms first from wound bed and to maintain epithelial integrity in the wound. Biofilms on wound surfaces cannot be accurately identified by current pre – clinical and clinical diagnostic techniques, making timely medical and surgical intervention impossible. Point-of-care biofilm discovery in chronic wound care will benefit greatly from the on-going development of these advanced laboratory approaches.

Magana, M., Sereti, C., Ioannidis, A., Mitchell, C. A., Ball, A. R., Magiorkinis, E., … & Tegos, G. P. (2018). Options and limitations in clinical investigation of bacterial biofilms. Clinical Microbiology Reviews31(3), e00084-16.

This review article summarizes the methodological landscape of biofilm analysis, with an assessment of current trends in methodological research reflected in the findings. Such findings form a basis for treatment of biofilms. Only 5percent of the total of the biofilm literature is focused to methodology, according to a keyword-focused bibliographic search conducted by the researchers. Depending on the composition of the microbial community and the microenvironment, bacteria can form single-species or multispecies biofilms. Within an extracellular matrix that they have constructed, bacteria or viruses exist side by side in complex and multifaceted communities known as biofilms (ECM). Due to the beauty and sophistication of these multicellular communities, along with their role in infectious diseases, biofilm development has received much attention in the last two decades. On nearly any surface, biofilms can form, and they can be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the community’s interactions with the surface and other living things. Comprehensive searches of literature yielded a new understanding of biofilm structure and function and the role they play in disease and host-pathogen interaction.

Chen, Z., Wang, Z., Ren, J., & Qu, X. (2018). Enzyme mimicry for combating bacteria and biofilms. Accounts of Chemical Research51(3), 789-799.

Biofilms can be treated through a variety of ways as investigated and supported through research. As a global health issue, bacterial infection is on the rise and antibiotics are the most widely accepted treatment paradigms. Increased antibiotic resistance has resulted from overuse and misuse of antibiotics, making treatment less effective and resulting in higher mortality rates. Bacterial biofilm formation on living and nonliving surfaces makes it even more difficult to combat bacteria because the extracellular matrix can act as a strong barrier to prevent antibiotic penetration and resist environmental stress. This makes it even more difficult to combat bacteria. Because bacteria and biofilms can’t be completely eliminated, they can lead to implant failure, device damage, and persistent infection. To avoid the development of bacterial resistance, it is critical to develop new antimicrobial agents. The creation of artificial enzymes that mimic the functions of natural enzymes will open up new avenues for combating bacteria. In addition, artificial enzymes are more stable, more easily tunable, and can be produced in large quantities for practical use than natural enzymes. Therefore, this can be a viable way to treat biofilms.

References

Barzegari, A., Kheyrolahzadeh, K., Khatibi, S. M. H., Sharifi, S., Memar, M. Y., & Vahed, S. Z. (2020). The battle of probiotics and their derivatives against biofilms. Infection and Drug Resistance13, 659.

Hartmann, R., Singh, P. K., Pearce, P., Mok, R., Song, B., Díaz-Pascual, F., … & Drescher, K. (2019). Emergence of three-dimensional order and structure in growing biofilms. Nature physics15(3), 251-256.

Li, C., Cornel, E. J., & Du, J. (2021). Advances and Prospects of Polymeric Particles for the Treatment of Bacterial Biofilms. ACS Applied Polymer Materials3(5), 2218-2232.

Magana, M., Sereti, C., Ioannidis, A., Mitchell, C. A., Ball, A. R., Magiorkinis, E., … & Tegos, G. P. (2018). Options and limitations in clinical investigation of bacterial biofilms. Clinical Microbiology Reviews31(3), e00084-16.

Muhammad, M. H., Idris, A. L., Fan, X., Guo, Y., Yu, Y., Jin, X., … & Huang, T. (2020). Beyond risk: bacterial biofilms and their regulating approaches. Frontiers in microbiology11, 928.

Otto, M. (2018). Staphylococcal biofilms. Microbiology spectrum6(4), 6-4.

Thi, M. T. T., Wibowo, D., & Rehm, B. H. (2020). Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(22), 8671.

Wu, Y. K., Cheng, N. C., & Cheng, C. M. (2019). Biofilms in chronic wounds: pathogenesis and diagnosis. Trends in biotechnology37(5), 505-517.

Zhu, Y., Li, C., Cui, H., & Lin, L. (2020). Feasibility of cold plasma for the control of biofilms in food industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology99, 142-151.

CLB 475 – Seminar
Spring 2022

Methodology

Each student will describe the research design that will be used for their proposed research
project.

The methodology should be divided into the following sections:

1. Design – Describe the type of experimental design that will be used for the study

2. Variables – Describe the independent variable and dependent variable/s

3. Participants – Describe the participants that you will recruit for this study
a. Inclusion criteria
b. Exclusion criteria

4. Controls
a. What are the characteristics of the control group?
b. Will the control group receive any treatment (any variables manipulated)?
c. Are there any ethical issues with the control group, and if yes, how will these be

handled?

5. Sampling
a. Describe the sampling methods that will be used to select participants (e.g.,

random, stratified random, systematic random, cluster)
b. How large will your sample size be (number in experimental group and number in

control group)?

6. Validity and Reliability
a. How will validity be ensured?
b. How will reliability be ensured?

7. Data Collection Technique – Describe the technique that will be used to obtain and
collect the data

a. What technique will be used?
b. When and how will the data collection instrument be administered?

8. Research Ethics – Describe the informed consent form that will be provided to each
participant

a. How will you ensure that participation is completely voluntary (voluntary, refusal
to participate, withdrawal from study)?

b. Are you providing any rewards to the participants?
c. Does participation pose any risks to participants?
d. How will you ensure confidentiality of the data?

CLB 475 – Seminar
Spring 2022

The methodology should be 1 to 2 pages in length. It should be formatted in Times New Roman
font, size 12, 1-inch margins, and double-spaced. All pages, except the cover page, should be
numbered. Proper grammar and spelling are required.

______________________________________________________________________________

Rubric for Assessment of Methodology:

1. Design – 1 point

2. Variables – 2 points

3. Participants – 2 point

4. Controls – 1 point

5. Sampling – 1 point

6. Validity and Reliability – 1 point

7. Data Collection Technique – 1 point

8. Research ethics – 1 point

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