Answer & Explanation:Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words:Recall the readings and activities you have completed this week Chapter 6 and research a TED Talk or other academic video that applies to one or more of your weekly objectives. Answer the following questions and include a link to the video: What do you find interesting or surprising about the information in the video? How does it relate back to your weekly objectives?
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Raymond A. Noe
The Ohio State University
EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT, SEVENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2017 by McGraw-Hill
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Noe, Raymond A., author.
Employee training and development / Raymond A. Noe, The Ohio State University. — Seventh edition.
ISBN 978-0-07-811285-0 (acid-free paper)
1. Employees–Training of. I. Title.
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Traditionally, training and development were not viewed as activities that could help companies create “value” and successfully deal with competitive challenges. Today, that view
has changed. Companies that use innovative training and development practices are likely
to report better financial performance than their competitors that do not. Training and
development also help a company develop the human capital needed to meet competitive
challenges. Many companies now recognize that learning through training, development,
and knowledge management helps employees strengthen or increase their skills in order
to improve or make new products, generate new and innovative ideas, and provide highquality customer service. Also, development activities and career management are needed
to prepare employees for managerial and leadership positions and to attract, motivate, and
retain talented employees at all levels and in all jobs. An emphasis on learning through
training, development, and knowledge management is no longer in the category of “nice
to do”—they are a “must do” if companies want to gain a competitive advantage and meet
Businesses today must compete in the global marketplace, and the diversity of the
workforce continues to increase. As a result, companies need to train employees to work
with persons from different cultures, both within the United States and abroad. Technologies, such as social media, and tablet computers, such as the iPad, reduce the costs
associated with bringing employees to a central location for training. At the same time,
the challenge is ensuring that these training methods include the necessary conditions
(practice, feedback, self-pacing, etc.) for learning to occur. Through the blended learning
approach, companies are seeking the best balance between private, self-paced, technologybased training (such as online learning), and methods that allow interpersonal interaction among trainees (such as classroom instruction or active learning). Employees from
the millennial generation are well versed in informal learning, especially through collaboration facilitated by social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Also, their gaming
experiences lead them to expect that learning experiences will be fun, multidimensional,
challenging, and provide immediate feedback and rewards.
The role of training has broadened beyond training program design. Effective instructional design remains important, but training managers, human resource experts, and
trainers are increasingly being asked to create systems to motivate employees to learn, not
only in programs but informally on the job; create knowledge; and share that knowledge
with other employees in the company. Training has moved from an emphasis on a onetime event to the creation of conditions for learning that can occur through collaboration,
online learning, traditional classroom training, or a combination of these methods. There
is increased recognition that learning occurs informally, outside the boundaries of a formal training course.
Also, the employee-employer relationship has changed. Due to rapidly changing business environments and competition that can quickly cause profits to shrink and skill needs
to change, companies are reluctant to provide job security to employees. At the same
time, many employees are job hopping to find more challenging and interesting work or
to maximize the value that they can get for their skills in the job market, and not making
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a long-term commitment to any company. As a result, both employees and companies are
concerned with developing future skills and managing careers. Companies want a workforce that is motivated and productive, has up-to-date skills, and can quickly learn new
skills to meet changing customer and marketplace needs. Despite the prevalence of job
hopping, companies want to provide a work environment and training and development
opportunities that will them the employer of choice for talented employees. Employees want
to develop skills that not only are useful for their current jobs, but also are congruent with
their personal interests and values. Given the increasing time demands of work, employees
are also interested in maintaining balance between work and non work interests.
The chapter coverage of Employee Training and Development reflects the traditional
as well as the broadening role of training and development in organizations. Chapter One,
“Introduction to Employee Training and Development,” covers the role of training and
development in companies. Chapter Two, “Strategic Training,” discusses how training
practices and the organization of the training function can support business goals. Because
companies are interested in reducing costs, the amount of resources allocated to training
is likely to be determined by the extent that training and development activities help the
company reach business goals. Topics related to designing training programs are covered in
Chapters Three through Six. Chapter Three, “Needs Assessment,” discusses how to identify
when training is appropriate. Chapter Four, “Learning and Transfer of Training,” addresses
the learning process and characteristics of a learning environment. The chapter also emphasizes what should be done in the design of training and the work environment to ensure that
training is used on the job. Chapter Five, “Program Design,” provides practical suggestions
regarding what can be done to facilitate learning and transfer of training before, during, and
after a course or program. The role of knowledge management in facilitating learning and
transfer of training is also discussed. Chapter Six, “Training Evaluation,” discusses how to
evaluate training programs. Here, the student is introduced to the concepts of identifying
cost-effective training, evaluating the return on investment of training and learning, and
determining if training outcomes related to learning, behavior, or performance have been
reached. Chapters Seven and Eight cover training methods. Chapter Seven, “Traditional
Training Methods,” discusses presentational methods (e.g., lecture), hands-on methods
(e.g., on-the-job training and behavior modeling), and group methods (e.g., adventure learning). Chapter Eight, “Technology-Based Training Methods,” introduces new technologies
that are being used in training. These technology-based training methods include e-learning,
mobile learning, social media, simulations, serious games, massive open online courses
(MOOCs), virtual worlds, and blended learning. Chapters Seven and Eight both conclude
by comparing training methods on the basis of costs, benefits, and learning characteristics.
Chapter Nine, “Employee Development and Career Management,” introduces developmental methods (assessment, relationships, job experiences, and formal courses). In
addition, the use of development plans to help employees succeed in their self-directed
or protean careers is highlighted. Topics such as succession planning and on boarding
are discussed. Chapter Ten, “Social Responsibility: Legal Issues, Managing Diversity,
and Career Challenges,” emphasizes the role that training plays in helping companies
improve the communities where they are located by increasing the skill level of the workforce, helping provide jobs, and taking actions to help all employees grow and develop,
regardless of their personal characteristics or career challenges. The chapter also discusses compliance with laws that affect training and development, training partnerships,
managing diversity, cross-cultural preparation, and how companies can help employees
deal with career challenges such as balancing work and life, coping with career breaks
such as taking time off for family or required military service, job loss, and retirement.
Finally, Chapter Eleven, “The Future of Training and Development,” looks at how training and development might be different ten or twenty years from now.
Employee Training and Development is based on my more than twenty-five years of
teaching training and development courses to both graduate and undergraduate students.
From this experience, I have realized that managers, consultants, trainers, and faculty
working in a variety of disciplines (including education, psychology, business, and industrial relations) have contributed to the research and practice of training and development.
As a result, the book is based on research conducted in several disciplines, while offering
a practical perspective. The book is appropriate for students in a number of programs.
It suits both undergraduate and master’s-level training courses in a variety of disciplines.
This book has several distinctive features. First, my teaching experience has taught me
that students become frustrated if they do not see research and theory in practice. As a
result, one distinctive feature of the book is that each chapter begins with a real-life vignette
of a company practice that relates to the material covered in the chapter. Many examples
of company practices are provided throughout the chapters. Each chapter ends with a reallife case and related questions that give students the opportunity to apply the chapter’s
content to an actual training or development issue.
A second distinctive feature of the book is its topical coverage. The chapters included
in Part Two, “Designing Training,” relate to training design (needs assessment, training methods, learning and transfer of training, and program design and evaluation).
Instructional design is still the “meat and potatoes” of training. Part Three, “Training and
Development Methods,” covers the more exciting part of training and development—that
is, training and development methods. But as the role of managers and trainers broadens,
they are increasingly involved in helping all employees grow, develop, and cope with
career challenges, as well as preparing high-potential employees for leadership positions.
For example, managers and trainers need to understand generational differences in employees’ career needs, career paths, cross-cultural training, diversity, outplacement, and
succession planning—topics that fall outside the realm of instructional design. These topics are covered in Part Four, “Social Responsibility and the Future.”
The book begins with a discussion of the context for training and development. Part One
includes chapters that cover the economic and workplace factors that are influencing trends
in the training profession. One of these trends is that companies are emphasizing learning
through formal training and development, knowledge management, and informal learning. In addition, these chapters discuss the need for training, development, and learning to
become strategic (i.e., to contribute to business strategy and organizational goals). Why? In
successful, effective training, all aspects of training—including training objectives, methods, evaluation, and even who conducts the training—relate to the business strategy. More
and more companies are demanding that the training function and training practices support business goals; otherwise, training may be outsourced or face funding cuts. Although
students in business schools are exposed to strategic thinking, students in psychology and
education who go on to become trainers need to understand the strategic perspective and
how it relates to the organization of the training function and the type of training conducted.
Not only has technology changed the way we live and the way work is performed, but
it also has influenced training practice. As a result, one chapter of the book is devoted
entirely to the use of technologies for training delivery and instruction, such as online
learning, social media, mobile learning, gamification, and virtual worlds.
The book reflects the latest “hot topics” in the area of training and development. Some
of the new topics discussed in the book are “flipped classroom,” adaptive training, big
data and workforce analytics, learning management systems, competencies, knowledge
management, massive open online courses (MOOCs), mobile learning (using smartphones), reverse mentoring iPads and other tablet computers, social media such as blogs,
wikis, and social networks, and virtual worlds (such as Second Life) for training. Each
chapter contains the most recent academic research findings and company practices.
FEATURES DESIGNED TO AID LEARNING
Employee Training and Development provides several features to aid learning:
1. Each chapter lists objectives that highlight what the student is expected to learn in that chapter.
2. In-text examples and chapter openers feature companies from all industries, including
service, manufacturing, retail, and nonprofit organizations.
3. Discussion questions at the end of each chapter help students learn the concepts presented in the chapter and understand potential applications of the material.
4. Important terms and concepts used in training and development are boldfaced in each
chapter. Key terms are identified at the end of each chapter. These key terms are important to help the student understand the language of training.
5. Application assignments are useful for the students to put chapter content into practice.
Most chapters include assignments that require the student to use the World Wide Web.
6. Cases at the end of each chapter and at the end of each of the four parts of the book
help students apply what they have learned to training and development issues faced by
7. Name and subject indexes at the end of the book help in finding key people and topics.
WHAT’S NEW IN THE SEVENTH EDITION
I want to personally thank all of you who have adopted this book! Based on the comments
of the reviewers of the fifth edition and training research and practice, I have made several
improvements. Some important changes in the sixth edition of Employee Training and
Development stand out:
• Each chapter has been updated to include the most recent research findings and new
best company practices. New examples have been added in each chapter’s text.
• All the chapter opening vignettes are new. For example, the opening vignette for
Chapter Eight highlights how Nissan is using e-learning that includes a virtual
classroom, social collaboration, and virtual learning lab for skills practice to its
geographically dispersed workforce.
• This edition offers new and expanded coverage of topics related to learning, program
design, training methods, evaluation, development, and the future of training. From
the learning and program design perspective expanded and new coverage is provided
on the 70-20-10 learning model, adaptive training, the importance of stakeholder
involvement in needs assessment and program design, the use of boosters, reflection,
and discussion to enhance learning, how to design training from a project management perspective, and the use of incentives and badges to motivate and reinforce
learning. The use of new and increasingly popular training delivery and instructional
methods, including massive open online courses (MOOCs), the flipped classroom,
serious games and gamification, and mobile learning, is discussed. From a development and career perspective, this edition provides new and expanded coverage of
career paths that are more common today, including horizontal and cross-functional
career paths, reverse mentoring, stretch assignments, and using succession planning
to develop bench strength. In training evaluation, the fundamentals remain important
but there is also an increased interest in and use of big data and workforce analytics
to show how learning, training, and development contribute to talent management
and the company’s “bottom line.” As a result, in the evaluation chapter we discuss
big data and how companies are using it to answer important questions. Finally, new
technologies have the potential to radically alter how and when we learn and substitute performance support for learning. As a result, in the last chapter of the book, we
discuss the implications of wearables, artificial intelligence, Tin Can API, and neuroscience research for the future of training and development. The implications of
the needs and learning preferences of the multigenerational workforce, especially the
millennials, for training and development are discussed throughout the book (e.g.,
reverse mentoring, increased use of games and social collaboration for learning).
• Each chapter ends with application assignments, including new program design and
updated web-based exercises. These assignments are also found on the book’s website.
• Each chapter concludes with new or updated brief cases that illustrate a training, development, or learning issue faced by a company. The case …
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