Expert Answer:Unit 7 essay

Answer & Explanation:InstructionsGlobal Terrorism Research PaperWithin several units of this course, you have prepared for your course project, which is due in this unit. For your course project, you will be writing a research paper on a domestic terrorist incident that has occurred in the United States. Utilizing the topic you selected in Unit II and the Unit V Annotated Bibliography, write your final research paper. Discuss the recruitment and radicalization process of lone wolf terrorists in the domestic United States and abroad using the Internet and social media platforms. Explain why terrorists focus on soft targets. Analyze the sociological and psychological impacts that these attacks have had on society. Include three to five recent topics of domestic or global lone wolf terrorist attacks that have occurred. Provide a full synopsis on these incidents to include the sequence of events and the resiliency and reactionary methods used to respond to the incidents. What lessons were learned after each of these events? Offer strategies that can be used to further strengthen the Internet and social media platforms from being used to recruit members, promote propaganda, and radicalize terrorists. Your final research paper must be a minimum of four pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. You are required to use a minimum of three outside sources, one of which must be from the CSU Online Library. All sources used, including the textbook, must be cited and referenced according to APA standards.NO NEWS OR MEDIA ARTICLES ARE TO BE USED IN THIS COURSE.Posted on: Tuesday, September 3, 2019 10:29:41 AM CDTNO NEWS OR MEDIA ARTICLES ARE TO BE USED IN THIS COURSE.In this course, you are to research and write as though you are a professional in Criminal Justice, Homeland Security, or Intelligence. Therefore, you are not to use any news or media. Only scholarly, peer-reviewed, government research or official government reporting.What is scholarly research? A scholarly publication is one in which the content is written by experts in a particular field of study – generally to share original research or analyze others’ findings. Scholarly work will thoroughly cite all source materials used and is usually subject to “peer review” before publication.What is peer-reviewed research articles? Scholarly peer review(also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author’s academic work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal or as a book.I do not want to see any sources of information such as, and not limited to FoxNews, CNN, Washington Times, HuffingtonPost, Times, DailyMail, etc. No blogs, internet posts, etc. Therefore, you may use Google ScholAr (https://scholar.google.com/), which will help weed out the news.Use the CSU Library and access to ProQuest and others. There is a long list of databases that will help you research and locate many scholarly, peer-reviewed, and government type reporting. NO NEWS OR MEDIA ARTICLES ARE TO BE USED IN THIS COURSE.Wikipedia is a site containing content that is collaboratively changed. This collaborative editing may be performed by individuals who may or may not be proficient or learned in the subject on which they are making commentary. The uncensored and unverified opinions contained in and on the Wikipedia site cannot be used for substantiating hypotheses or conclusions.Therefore, Wikipedia absolutely cannot be used as a source in bibliographic citations, quotes, scholarly work or assignments.
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Running head: A STRING OF SHOOTINGS
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A String of Shootings
Name
Institution
A STRING OF SHOOTINGS
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Part I: Research Paper Topic
A String of Shootings
Part II: Research Topic Justification
‘A string of shootings’ is an appropriate topic regarding the recurring acts of domestic
terrorism occurring as mass shootings. I chose the topic because at least three incidents of fatal
mass shootings appeared on television this year alone, where the shooter had a radical message
of hatred against others. Twenty-two people died on 4 August after a shooting at a Walmart in El
Paso Texas (Homeland Security Digital Library, 2019). Most of the mass shooters left messages
and manifestos on social media sites such as Facebook and other messaging boards justifying
their violent acts. As a nation, we must address the issue of domestic terrorism, bring the string
of mass shootings to a halt, and restore peace.
The chosen topic is promising because it covers a recent issue in the society where the
internet and social media platforms provide an opportune place to recruit and radicalize
terrorists. Domestic terrorists inside the U.S. act as ‘lone wolf terrorists’ because it is easier and
safer acting alone than convincing others to join their course. These terrorists attack soft targets
like malls, schools, and places of worship, which are under low security and surveillance
maximizing their damage to civilian life. It is imperative to dissect the sociology and psychology
of mass shooters because sometimes school shooting incidents amount to acts of terror. I think
this topic is important to homeland security in helping to determine the influence of
radicalization on any incidence of mass shootings. It is important to clarify whether an event is
an act of terrorism, a school shooting, or a homicide. The topic is important to homeland security
because sometimes the terrorists carry radical messages of racism, ethnicity, islamophobia, and
A STRING OF SHOOTINGS
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anti-Semitism. It requires the cooperation of law enforcement agencies and the public in fighting
the string of shootings.
A STRING OF SHOOTINGS
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References
Homeland Security Digital Library (2019). Mass Shootings: El Paso Shooting. Referenced from
https://www.hsdl.org/c/tl/el-paso-shooting/
Running head: A STRING OF SHOOTINGS
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A String of Shootings
Name
Institution
A STRING OF SHOOTINGS
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A String of Shootings: Annotated Bibliography
Meindl, J. N., & Ivy, J. W. (2017). Mass shootings: The role of the media in promoting
generalized imitation. American journal of public health, 107(3), 368-370.
Meindi and Ivy regard mass shootings as a significant problem within the United States,
with the likelihood of occurring once every 12.5 days. The article bases its argument on the
“contagion” effect, a theory that describes the impact of media coverage on mass homicide
incidents and attributes the range of mass murder to the generalized imitation of the scenes as
presented by media reporting. The work recommends a change of methods in media reporting.
The source also provides various guidelines on how mass media should report mass homicide to
reduce imitation of such behavior.
The report article targets to evaluate the connection between Media reports and imitation
of such behavior as a way of minimizing string of shooting in America. Reporters are advised to
not to sensationalize suicide by avoiding the use of prominent headlines. Similarly, reporters
should not provide too detailed information on the event and limit the use of videos and
photographs in their reporting.
Towers, S., Gomez-Lievano, A., Khan, M., Mubayi, A., & Castillo-Chavez, C. (2015).
Contagion in mass killings and school shootings. PLoS One, 10(7), e0117259.
Towers and colleagues determined evidence of contagion in mass killing and school
shooting instances, by fitting a contagion model to the data sets of such incidence reported in the
United States. The study was set to determine whether murder and shooting instances increased
the likelihood of a similar rate occurring soon, found the occurrence of firearm mass killing
event to incident occurrence of same events 13 days. The study also found the prevalence of gun
A STRING OF SHOOTINGS
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ownership within a state to be highly related to the frequency of mass killing incidences targeting
schools and the general public.
This source provides critical insights into the cause of the prevalence of mass shootings
in the US. Considering various case studies, it evaluates the effect of mass media content on
occurrence and imitation of incidents.
Lankford, A. (2016). Are America’s public mass shooters unique? A comparative analysis
of offenders in the United States and other countries. International Journal of
comparative and applied criminal justice, 40(2), 171-183.
Lankford analyzed the characteristics of mass shooting events within the United States
and other countries between 1966 and 2012. Incidences in the United States were found to have
unique features compared to those in other countries. For instance, the United States mass
shooters were more likely to be armed with several varieties of weapons and would attack the
workplace and school setups. In other countries, mass shooters were more likely to attack
military sites. Adam further attributed the phenomenon to the increased national gun culture in
the United States, as well as its aspects of social strain.
This study evaluates some of the common traits of criminals involved in a mass shooting
at various incidents. It provides of quantitative analysis of incidents where the offenders had
killed at least four people in the attack. Compiling different settings of mass shootings will offer
a significant understanding of causes, motivator factors, and common traits of mass shooters.
Duwe, G. (2017). The patterns and prevalence of mass public shootings in the United
States, 1915–2013. The Wiley handbook of the psychology of mass shootings, 20-35.
Duwe finds the prevalence and pattern of public shooting in America to have evolved.
The study describes mass shooting as an extremely violent crime, which began in the United
A STRING OF SHOOTINGS
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States during the 1960s. According to Duwe, the prevalence of this criminal act increased over
time and reached its highest peak in 1960. By 1960, the rate of public shooting tripled that of
1960 and started to decline in the period after 1960. Duwe further explains public shootings that
occurred before 1960 as characterized by felony-related massacres. However, public shootings
after the 1960 period majorly comprised of mass shootings.
The source will be useful in providing an understanding of the consistent patterns in the
occurrence of public shootings. It will also provide an analysis of the trends in mass shootings.
Webster, D. W. (2017). The actual effect of mass shootings on Americans. Annals of
internal medicine, 166(10), 749-750.
Webster observed mass shootings in the United States to have dramatically increased
since 2004. Webster also found an increase in the rate of public firearm purchase following
incidences of high profile violent attacks in states with such provision. However, Webster
relates the increasing gun possession among members of the general public to increase in rates of
intense mass shootings. According to Webster, increasing the proportion of handgun acquisition
by the general members of the public increases the likelihood of people perpetrates mass
shootings, among other criminal acts.
This source will provide a different dimension in view of the causes of mass killings in
recent. The reference relates possession of firearms by the general public to the prevalence of
public shootings.
Studdert, D. M., Zhang, Y., Rodden, J. A., Hyndman, R. J., & Wintemute, G. J. (2017).
Handgun acquisitions in California after two mass shootings. Annals of internal
medicine, 166(10), 698-706.
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Studdert and colleagues describe frequent incidences of mass shootings in the United
States as related to possession of a firearm by the general public. Their study was set to
determine patterns of handgun acquisition following mass shooting events in California,
Connecticut, and San Bernardino. The study further discovered an increase in the purchase of
handguns following incidents of mass shootings. The study also found out handgun acquisition,
among members of the public, to be the highest within six weeks following an occurrence of the
mass shootings.
This source will provide insights on the psychological effect and reaction of the people to
cases of mass shootings. Also, it will evaluate the preparedness of the people to future mass
shootings cases.

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