Expert Answer:short answer(every question about 100 words)

Answer & Explanation:1. J.L. Austin distinguished between two forms of language: constative and performative
utterances. Define these two terms, making sure to distinguish between them. Finally, use the
3-I model of communication to discuss a specific example of a performative utterance. 2. Using either Robin Lakoff or Gloria Anzaldúa, respond to the following question: how are
language, identity, and power enacted within a specific institution? (You may use an example of
a specific institution in your answer, but you must speak about institutional
structures/hierarchies.) 3. Using a specific and original example from contemporary culture, explain Adorno &
Horkheimer’s analysis of the Culture Industry as a system, connecting your explanation to
power relations within broader society. 4. Using a specific example from contemporary visual culture, explain how Stuart Hall positions
racial, gendered, and sexual difference in his understanding of representation.
5. Briefly compare the theories of Laura Mulvey and bell hooks (from course readings). Describe
an example of “the male gaze” from contemporary culture, and describe an example of an
“oppositional gaze,” also from contemporary culture.6. Describe Saussure’s theory of signification and the sign, and explain what Barthes means by
“the photographic paradox.”
7. What is the ideal relationship between journalism and democracy? Why is journalism
important to democracy, and how are commercialization, opinion-based journalism, and
governmental interventions in journalism threats to that function? (You should include
references to the history of journalism as a profession in your answer.)Here is my lecture slides,it can help you. And this is oral question, so please use easy words.Thank you!
2019.10.21.pdf

2019.10.23.pdf

2019.10.28.pdf

2019.10.30.pdf

2019.11.04.pdf

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COMM 10
21 October 2019
Stuart Hall

b. 1932 (Jamaica), d.
2014 (UK)

How is meaning
made?

Race as the “floating
signifier”
Cultural Studies

Birmingham Center for Contemporary Cultural
Studies (UK) — with Raymond Williams

Influenced strongly by Karl Marx’s critique of
social class structure

Antonio Gramsci and hegemony: the cultural
production of consent in those who are
dominated by the powerful
The (very) basics of Marxist
theory
How does a tree become a
house?
How does a tree become a
house?
Labor
Capitalism commodifies the raw material,
the final product, and the labor that
produces it…
help!III
Commodity
Commodity
Commodity
…and converts the use value of all three
into exchange value so as to generate
profit on the “free market.”
seriously,
help!III
omg moneymoneymoney
i’ll buy all of it moneymoney
lol money moneymoneymoney
…and converts the use value of all three
into exchange value so as to generate
profit on the “free market.”
srsly bro?
can’t afford it.
hey worker dude
wanna buy this here house?
real good deal.
…and converts the use value of all three
into exchange value so as to generate
profit on the “free market.”
wtf yeah ok
whatevs
oh ha i’ll give you a mortgage.
bad credit no problem.
sign here.
Capitalism = the ideology of
Capital (the result of surplus/profit)
wtf yeah ok
whatevs
oh ha i’ll give you a mortgage.
bad credit no problem.
sign here.
Capitalism has commodified four things in
this example (which means that somebody
else makes a profit from each of the four)…
raw material
labor
real estate
mortgage
(loan)
…and has alienated people from their own
labor by treating that labor as a commodity
to be bought and sold by others…
raw material
labor
real estate
mortgage
…and has also created the necessity of
this cycle, which will be reproduced over
generations.
raw material
labor
real estate
mortgage
Key Terms
in Stuart Hall’s work

Representation: fixing meaning in signs (Usually
operates through binaries, including black/white,
good/evil, male/female

The “Other”: we make meaning through difference

Naturalization: representation wants to appear
normal/natural

Intertextuality: meaning is contingent upon the
relationship between multiple images/cultural forms
Ben Johnson (“Heroes & Villans”)
Linford Christie
Florence Griffith-Joyner
Carl Lewis
What representational
regime is at work?
Ieisha Evans at a Baton Rouge protest over the death of Alton Sterling.
QUIZ
Remember, write your NAME and
your SECTION on your paper.
What does Stuart Hall mean by “intertextuality”?
COMING UP

For Wednesday: Laura Mulvey, “Visual Pleasure
& Narrative Cinema” (on TED)

Friday: No Lecture, Group Projects due at
NOON

For Next Monday: bell hooks, “The Oppositional
Gaze” (on TED)
COMM 10
23 October 2019
Structuralism and Language

Diagramming Sentences: Alonzo Reed and Brainerd
Kellogg (1870s); Frederick Winslow Taylor

“Grammatically Correct”: remember Anzaldúa and
Smitherman
Structuralism as a
Mode of Analysis

Originated in Linguistics (remember Saussure)
and Anthropology (Claude Levi-Strauss): studied
the structure within culture and cultural genres
(language, family/kinship).

Media Studies (and especially Film Studies)
have also used Structuralism to understand how
media genres work.
Laura Mulvey

British Feminist film scholar and theorist

Psychoanalytic model of mainstream Hollywood
film

“Scopophilic Pleasure”: the pleasure we feel in
looking
The Psyche
(Sigmund Freud)
Conscious
Preconscious
Unconscious
Scopophilic Pleasure

Voyeurism: female characters/actors designed
to appeal to the desire of heterosexual men

Narcissistic Identification: male characters/
actors designed for male viewers to identify with

These reflect the patriarchal unconscious of US
culture/society
Alfred Hitchcock, Psycho (1960)
Gus Van Sant, Psycho (1998)
Michael Bay, Transformers (2007)
Who is the imagined, desired, or ideal viewer
for this scene, image, or material?
True Blood, season 1
The Bechdel Test
A few Hollywood movies that
FAIL the Bechdel Test:
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Part II
Avatar
The Social Network
Star Wars, The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi
Lord of the Rings (all of them)
Mulan
And many, many, many, many, many others.
A few Hollywood movies that
PASS the Bechdel Test:
Wonder Woman
Guardians of the Galaxy vol 2
Avengers: Infinity War
Girls Trip
The LEGO Batman Movie
The Last Jedi
QUIZ
Remember, write your NAME and
your SECTION on your paper.
According to Mulvey, what is Scopophilia?
Coming Up

Reminder: NO LECTURE on Friday — Group
Projects due by noon.

For Monday: read bell hooks, “The Oppositional
Gaze” (on TED)
COMM 10
28 October 2019
Who is the imagined, desired, or ideal viewer
for this scene, image, or material?
Bechdel Test:
3 Criteria

Must have two named women characters…

…who speak to each other…

…about something other than a man.
A few Hollywood movies that
FAIL the Bechdel Test:
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Part II
Avatar
The Social Network
Star Wars, The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi
Lord of the Rings (all of them)
Mulan
And many, many, many, many, many others.
Some surprising movies that
FAIL the Bechdel Test:
Bohemian Rhapsody
Love, Simon
Moonlight
Lara Croft: Tomb Raider
La La Land
Finding Nemo (based on gender identity of voice actors)
How might the Bechdel Test be reimagined for other kinds of difference
(including Intersectional differences)?
In 2013, the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against
Defamation (GLAAD) created the Vito
Russo Test, based on the Bechdel Test.
VITO RUSSO
b 1946, d 1990 (AIDS)
Author, The Celluloid Closet (later made into a documentary)
about LGBT representation in Hollywood Film.
GLAAD’s Vito Russo Test

The film contains a character that is identifiably lesbian, gay,
bisexual, transgender, and/or queer.

That character must not be solely or predominantly defined by
their sexual orientation or gender identity (i.e. they are
comprised of the same sort of unique character traits commonly
used to differentiate straight/non-transgender characters from
one another).

The LGBTQ character must be tied into the plot in such a way
that their removal would have a significant effect, meaning they
are not there to simply provide colorful commentary, paint urban
authenticity, or (perhaps most commonly) set up a punchline.
The character must matter.
In 2017:

Of the 109 films released by major studios, only 14 (12.8%) included
LGBT characters. This number is significantly LOWER than 2016 (less
representation than the year before).

Of those characters, 64% of the characters are gay men. 0% were
Transgender and/or Nonbinary.

There were only 28 characters, total, in 2017 films: 20 men and 8
women, none of whom were Trans and/or Nonbinary.

57% of those characters were People of Color: 12 were White, 8 were
Black, 8 were Latinx. There were no representations of LGBT Asians or
Native Americans.

From smaller, “art house” studios, only 28% of the films included LGBT
characters.
How might the Bechdel Test be reimagined for other kinds of difference
(including Intersectional differences)?
Note: The point of the Bechdel Test is NOT to suggest that
every single narrative/film must include every conceivable
form of difference, but rather than the cultural landscape
as a whole should reflect the world in which we live.
When someone with the authority of a
teacher describes the world and you are
not in it, there is a moment of psychic
disequilibrium, as if you looked into a
mirror and saw nothing. Yet you know
you exist and others like you, that this is
a game done with mirrors. It takes some
strength of soul — and not just individual
strength, but collective understanding —
to resist this void . . . and to stand up,
demanding to be seen and heard.
—Adrienne Rich (poet)
How do we encounter/engage
difference in the world?

Everyday interactions (interpersonal and organizational
interaction)

Law (justice, equality, inclusion, reparation)

Politics (government, representation in social decisionmaking)

Institutional structures and services (access, fairness,
equality)

Inter-cultural exchange (travel, globalism, trade, world
politics)
Difference in the visual
realm
How do films, photographs, public art,
architecture, and other visual formats structure our
relationship to different kinds of difference (gender,
race, sexuality, dis/ability, class, religion, …)?
How does our spectatorship of these visual forms
structure our relationship to different kinds of
difference in the world and in our lives?
bell hooks
BA Stanford, MA University of
Wisconsin, PhD UC Santa
Cruz
Distinguished Professor, has
held positions at many
universities and institutes.
Author of more than 30 books
and hundreds of articles.
bell hooks
“[For Black women and girls,] the gaze has always been
political.”
“There is power in looking.”
Theories of the visual (like Mulvey’s) have paid attention
to gender differences while ignoring other forms of
difference, including race, class, and sexuality.
“The Oppositional Gaze”: when looking itself is a form of
protest against or resistance to normative social
expectations.
How might the Bechdel Test be re-imagined for
other kinds of difference (including
Intersectional differences)?
Note: The point of the Bechdel Test is NOT to
suggest the every single narrative/film must include
every conceivable form of difference, but rather than
the cultural landscape as a whole
should reflect the world in which we live.
QUIZ
Remember, write your NAME and
your SECTION on your paper.
Write down one thing you remember from the bell
hooks reading that we did not discuss in lecture.
This Week

For Wednesday: read John Hartley,
“Democratainment” (on TED)

For Friday: read Jonathan Gray, “Art With Strings
Attached” (on TED)
COMM 10
30 OctoBOO 2019
FRIDAY LECTURE CANCELLED.
(Sections WILL meet.)
Writing Assignment for ALL STUDENTS now on TED.
Due next Wednesday.
2nd Group Project will be posted on TED next week.
John Hartley
Professor of Cultural Science at Curtin University
(Australia) and of Journalism, Media, and Cultural
Studies at Cardiff University (UK).
Author of more than 20 books, most about
television and digital video.
Primarily curious about how television viewing is
connected to social behavior and citizenship.
How/what does television teach us?
What does television train us for?
What does television train us
for?

Discursive analysis: what stories are being told
on these shows; who is included/excluded; what
do those stories construct as “normal”?

TV Industry analysis: who makes these stories?
who funds them? what commercials surround
them? who are the workers involved in these
(cultural and technological) industries? Where
are the flows of power and money?
The Three “I”s
Interpretation
(Communication, Culture, and Representation)
Institutions
Interaction
(Communication, Institutions, and
Power)
(Communication, the Person, and
Everyday Life)
————Theory, History, & Practice/Production————
Civil Citizenship: rights
Political Citizenship: representation
Social Citizenship: education, infrastructure, welfare
Cultural Citizenship: identity
Media Citizenship: viewership/audience
“DIY” Citizenship: piecing together a “self”
QUIZ
Remember, write your NAME and
your SECTION on your paper.
What does Hartley mean by “social citizenship”?
Coming Up

For Monday: read Adorno & Horkheimer, “The
Culture Industry” (on TED)
COMM 10
4 November 2019
How/what does television teach us?
What does television train us for?
The Culture Industry

Adorno & Horkheimer: members of “The Frankfurt
School” of critical theory, exiled in California (from
Germany) during World War II

Part of The Dialectic of Enlightenment: an inherent
pessimism about the possibilities of mass
liberation from social domination

Used Marx’s theories about labor and capital to
explain cultural productions’ effects on the
masses
Adorno & Horkheimer claim that “culture” now operates
just like any other industry:
cultural objects (clothing, film, music…) are commodified
and mass-produced so as to generate support for
existing power relations and profit for a select few.
The Culture Industry.

The Culture Industry: similar to other kinds of
industry (transportation, energy, commerce…)

The Culture Industry: convergence of media and
art forms to promote a common “we”

The Culture Industry: commonality, “common
sense,” ideology, hegemony
Intervention/Resistance in cultural forms
The Three “I”s
Interpretation
(Communication, Culture, and Representation)
Institutions
Interaction
(Communication, Institutions, and
Power)
(Communication, the Person, and
Everyday Life)
————Theory, History, & Practice/Production————
Reminders

Written Assignment due on TED Wednesday.

Second Group Project is posted on TED.

No Lecture Wednesday or Friday.

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