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Answer & Explanation:-Grammar check, elaborate the sentences and make it more professional.( Read textbook and two videos)Using the same format as the last essay, please answer the following three questions (2-3 pages each) and upload by 5:00pm on Tuesday, November 12th.1. What are the two primary research questions of the Kyle book and how are they answered ?2. How are racism, talentism, and meritocracy (as an ideal and dystopia) part of the social and cultural historical dimensions of this tale of two transnational migrations and regional “development.”3. Using the following two videos, describe how or where we find (or not find) the ideology of meritocracy and a belief in scientific talentism in the documentary, “Immigration Battle,” regarding the last major attempt for “comprehensive immigration reform.”…


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1. The book, Transnational Peasants: Migrations, Networks, and Ethnicity in Andean Ecuador,
by David Kyle, explores varying underlying dynamics which exist in different forms of migration that
existed in Ecuador. The first primary research question in the book is why do two groups from the same
country pursue radically different economic strategies of transnational mobility. The second research
question is how ethnic identity has shaped two divergent patterns of transnational migration i.e., to New
York versus to Europe. The two groups from the same country pursue different strategies of transnational
migration because of some differences that exist between these groups (Kyle 5). The Otavalo people in
the northern part of Ecuador have a different mode of production compared to the Azuay from the
southern part; therefore, these communities can afford different means of transnational mobility. The
Azuay live in southern highlands, and generations survive by making Panama hats for commercial
purposes, and they occasionally immigrate to New York. The Otavalo live in northern highlands, and
their economic activity is weaving though recently, they have changed to music. In addition, the diverse
form of transnational mobility has been brewed by some differences which lie along with demographic
and ethnic identities. These differences between communities make it possible for each community to go
for the mode of immigration, which suits them better and can make them arrive at their desired
destination. The Otavalo peddle their commodities to far places such as Europe and since it is a long
journey, and they pursue the aid of smugglers and immigration merchants (Kyle 23). On the other hand,
the Azuay community, who often migrate to New York, prefer to use common people because their
economic status cannot afford the services of smugglers and merchants. These differences in social class,
status, economic grounds make these different communities employ different modes of mobility because
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they are distinct, and each community chooses a mode of migration which suits their economic standards.
Therefore, economic standards, social class, and ethnic identity are factors that have enabled the existence
of two types of transnational mobility by two groups from the same country.
Ethnic identity has shaped two divergent patterns of transnational migration. Ethnic identity is an
underlying factor that distinguishes these different forms of migration since each community prefers a
mode of mobility that suits their social class. The two regions in Ecuador has had a long history of
differences which traces back to the pre-Inca times. The traditional economic activity of the people in the
north has been different from the one in the southern part, and thus the development of a different of a
social class which makes these individual clusters themselves into different categories (Kyle 64).
Different economic patterns give rise to varying ethnic identities and divisions, which make generations
from these communities associate themselves with their social class. Patterns of transnationalism, which
were developed over several centuries by varying generations, continue to determine a crucial role of who
will stay in Ecuador and who will stay. People consider the culture of origin as an essential aspect in
maintaining links with other people who have migrated and thus follow the choices which others their
ethnic group have chosen. Individuals follow the traits which other grown-up members of the society
have chosen because they believe they consist of a heritage that is shared with the people in the locality
(Kyle 34). Immigrants carry with them cultural capital, among other things as items of identity, and in the
process, they develop a belonging since they wish to maintain the identity and end up choosing a different
route that other members of ethnic groups have chosen. Individuals from different ethnic groups know the
mode of mobility which fits their ethnic identity, leading to the existence of different patterns of
transnational mobility, which defines each class.
2. Racism, talents, and meritocracy are part of social and cultural-historical dimensions in the tale
of two transnational and regional development. Social forces such as racism and meritocracy operate as
an invisible structure that plays a role in designing the existence of two forms of migration witnessed
within different communities in Ecuador. These communities experienced different forms of experiences,
such as racism, and use these different the underlying historical dimensions to develop their regions. The
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two regions possess different types of skills, such as making hats and weaving, which makes them strive
and develop their region differently. The idea of meritocracy comes to play in the scenario whereby a
particular group in Ecuador prefers merits over aspects such as social classes and thus develop their
regions differently. The economic status of these regions creates dynamic as to why the most fortunate
community is more developed compared to the other. The Otavalo community could be more talented
compared to the other community Azuay since they are skilled in weaving and have entered the field of
music; therefore, they could afford a more complex model of transnational mobility (Kyle 12).
Communities with diverse talents are always on the upper hand because they can generate more income,
and develop their area more than the other. The southerners from the history of the country have been
favored because of their economic prowess over the others, which gives them the advantage to develop
and have access to links. Ecuador is a nation composed of regions that have long histories of imbalance
both economically and historically and which members of the communities keep on carrying forward.
The comparison of these communities, which places one above the other historically, gives birth to the
different forms of transnationals since the societies believe they possess some set societal standards (Kyle
41). The migrants in their country have already had some social and economic positions and are always
destined to work hard and maintain these statuses, which define their class and set them above others.
Depending on the resources which are available in any given region, communities work to ensure
continuity of the historical legacies set by the previous generations.
The two tales of transnational mobility have been deep-rooted in many factors, such as social and
cultural dimensions, which allow for some regions to be better placed compared to the others. The
differences in skill level and exposure makes individuals gain more experience and contribute to the
economy more compared to the other group. The situation leads to regional development since one region
is considered to be developed over the other and thus given more preference and recognition, leading to
regional development. There is the existence of two levels comparative of cultural analysis, which shape
migrants as cultural actors to promote their identities, which leads to the development of regions in
different dimensions. The people have also had different forms of exposure since they borrow many
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concepts from the countries they immigrate to, such as racism, which inspires them to develop their
regions due to suffering in the hands of racist countries (Kyle 234). The ideas meritocracy also influences
the tale of two transnational since certain groups have a perception that they have better merits compared
to other groups, and thus they do not deserve the same form of treatment, thus leading to the development
of divergent choices. From a cultural context, each group wants to identify itself differently from other
groups, which means that they will develop their region differently to meet the standards attached to their
class. Ethnic identity and class lines make the regions to ensure they subscribe to a mode of transnational
mobility which suits their social class and which is accepted by the other members within the economic
3. The videos explore several instances surrounding immigration reforms in the United States of
America and display the ideology of meritocracy and scientific talents. At the beginning of the
documentary, there is the instance in the film which talks about the election of former President Obama,
who was voted as the president because of merit and not social class. Mr. Obama was elected because he
had promised to achieve many things for the people among them orchestrating immigration reforms,
which would ensure that immigrant communities are recognized in the country. The retired president was
chosen by the electorate not because of his social class but because of the effort he demonstrated. The
idea of meritocracy is also evident in the passing of the bi-partisan immigration legislature, which was to
take care of the rights of immigrant people in the country. Leaders evaluated the ramifications of
deporting thousands of immigrant parents, which will lead to instances such as broken families. Many of
the people who wanted the reforms to be enacted evaluated the consequences of allowing thousands of
immigrants in the country and the effects the situation will have on the country. On the other hand, there
are individuals who opposed the reforms since they believed that the bill would have the freedom to the
immigrant community. Democrat Luiz Gutierrez was elected by thousands of America because of merit
and achievement he had achieved while in school and later life. Luiz gives much attention to the
immigration reforms on the basis that they will protect the rights of many immigrant people living in the
country. Gutierrez traces his roots from Latino society, and people believed that he was best suited to
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represent them and did not consider his social class. He is a qualified person who believes in the rule of
law and justice for the immigrant people making thousands of people rallying behind him because of
social class.
Besides, the battle for immigration has some ideologies of meritocracy by the fact the people who
care for and against the reforms are considering the achievements that the amendment will make to the
American people. In the middle of the documentary, there is an instance some of the members from the
republican are filmed in the pub discussion ways through which the speaker was elected. They say that
the speaker was not elected through merit, and it is the reason he was not discharging his duties due to
incompetence. The concept of the speaker not being elected on the basis of merit leads to the use of
scientific talent, where he opposed bills such as Obamacare to rise to power. In the documentary, there is
an instance whereby a certain lady is addressing a gathering of immigrants in a hall wearing t-shirts
written dreamers and asks the gathering about the leaders who can stop the deportation. The young
immigrants rate the performances of leaders and agree that Obama is the individual who can stop
deportation due to his achievements. Barack Obama is an individual who rose to power by going against
his social class since he traces his origin from the African society, and the people believed he was talented
to lead the country.
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Works Cited
Kyle David. Transnational Peasants: Migrations, Networks, and Ethnicity in Andean, Ecuador. The John
Hopkins University Press (2000):10-268.
Dir. Robertson, S and Camerini, M. “Season 2015 Episode 17” Immigration Battle (2015).

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