Expert Answer:Response to classmates’ post regarding discussion

Answer & Explanation:Response to classmates’ posts regarding discussion board question. Please see the attachment.
int_humanitarian_wk12.docx

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International Humanitarian Aids
Please response to at least two of classmates’ post with apa style.
1st
1 day ago
Week 12
Dani Kloepper
COLLAPSE
Ethical prioritization of vaccine distribution is essential to both contain an outbreak and prevent the further
spread of the disease, especially with highly contagious diseases such as influenza. From a process
standpoint, the first order of business is identifying high-risk and personnel essential to the response. The
ultimate goal is to incorporate a strategy that minimizes morbidity, mortality, and the disruption of everyday
life.
Most experts agree that a tiered approach is the most effective way to execute a mass vaccination
campaign in the midst of a pandemic. High risk individuals, or Tier 1 status, would include persons directly
involved with influenza vaccine and antiviral manufacturing and distribution. If we cannot keep up with
demand for the vaccine, the outbreak will never be contained. Healthcare workers with direct patient contact
and essential support services are also included in Tier 1. It is important to prioritize the vaccination of
healthcare workers and essential support services because healthcare services must be maintained during an
outbreak. Public health workers with direct patient contact are also a high priority vaccination group as
contact tracing and surveillance is a mission-critical function during outbreaks. Additional high-risk
vaccination groups would include key public safety personnel, key government officials who make would
make real-time decisions regarding outbreak response, and utility workers so that water, power,
telecommunication, and sanitation can be maintained. (HHS, 2005)
In addition to vaccinating essential personnel as part of the tier 1 response, high-risk individuals
should also receive priority for vaccinations. Those who are at greatest risk for contracting the disease must
be vaccinated in order to contain the outbreak. According to the CDCs, individuals 65 and older,
immunocompromised individuals including pregnant women and household contacts of severely
immunocompromised patients, and healthy children 6-23 months of age. Vaccinating the highest risk
individuals first is the essential first step in outbreak containment. (CDC, 2019)
From a personal perspective, this year in particular has been extremely challenging in regard to
vaccine availability. The tiered approach to vaccine distribution can be further broken down in to
geographical and facility specific risks. Hospitals in the U.S. receive limited quantities of the influenza vaccines
for staff and patients, and the distribution of the vaccine often comes in waves. The tiered system is similar
within a hospital, first receivers (ie: emergency department), and healthcare workers in with high-risk
patient populations (ICU, L&D, NICU, Oncology) should get the vaccine first. I know this year in particular we
experienced a lot of frustration regarding the delay in receiving flu vaccines and the
distribution/prioritization of flu vaccines (we had our first positive flu case in September, but did not receive
enough vaccinations for our entire department until mid-October). (CDC, 2018)
2nd
1 day ago
Week 12
Saleh Alyami
COLLAPSE
Introduction
Influenza is a respiratory disease that is caused by virus infection. It is one of the most infectious
diseases in the United States and other parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Due to
the high rate of transmission of influenza, having an emergency response plan to curb its spread
is significant for the health of the global population at large (Equels & Sullenberger, 2014). This
response plan discusses the signs and symptoms of influenza strain, its mode of transmission and
the affected groups, how to distribute the vaccine, and probable limitations to be encountered.
Signs and symptoms of influenza strain
The most common signs and symptoms of influenza as per the finding of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention include high body temperatures, breathing difficulties, fatigue, headache,
runny nose, severe aches, shivers and cold sweats, dry cough, lack of appetite, seizures, among
others. However, these symptoms might also indicate infection by another disease. Seeing the
doctors for confirmation is necessary.
Modes of transmission and affected groups
Influenza is a contagious disease that spreads via respiratory droplets. This disease spreads
through the air. An infected person can pass it to others when talking or having any form of
physical contact. In most cases, influenza spreads at a high rate in overcrowded places. The virus
attacks the respiratory system, particularly the throat, lungs, and nose when someone breaths in
contaminated air.
Influenza affects all types of people irrespective of age, gender, status, race, etc. However, the
disease is prevalent in people with weak immune systems such as children and older individuals
(aged above 65 years). Influenza is also common in people with chronic illnesses like diabetes,
asthma, kidney disease, heart disease, and liver disease. Obese individuals whose BMI index is
40 and above are also at risk.
How to distribute the vaccine
Children and adults aged above 65 years are the two groups that are more vulnerable to influenza
strain. Since the vaccine is not sufficient for all the United States residents, these two groups of
individuals should be prioritized for vaccination because their immune system is weaker as
compared to other groups. The immune system of children is still developing; they don’t have
enough antibodies to fight the influenza attack. Also, children should be prioritized for
immunization because they form a bigger portion of the U.S. population. Offering better health
care to children is offering better health care to the future generation. Similarly, adults aged 65
years and above should be immunized with the influenza vaccine because their immune system
starts to deteriorate as they grow older. However, the vaccine should be based on epidemiologic
and virologic surveillance, antiviral susceptibility, serology studies, antigenic and genetic
characterization, and the severity of influenza viruses.
The vaccine for influenza strain should be administered by injection. The vials should be stored
at a temperature of 35 – 46 oC. The intramuscular administering of the vaccine should be based
on the age of the patient. Children aged 6 – 35 months should be vaccinated with 0.5 mL for
FluLaval Quadrivalent or 0.25 mL for Fluzone Quadrivalent. However, the vaccination process
should be carried out by qualified health practitioners, as recommended by the WHO.
Influenza vaccination should be done semi-annually for the health benefit of the vulnerable
groups. Most children require to be vaccinated with flu vaccine twice a year for their bodies to be
able to withstand influenza attack. The federal and state government should play a key role in
allocating the resources required for vaccination. At the regional level, the county’s health
department should collaborate with all the health centers within the county to ensure that all
resources are availed for vaccination exercise. There is a need to ensure that the influenza
vaccine is available in all health centers, especially in influenza prone areas. Some of the
resources required for influenza vaccination include the vaccine, health workers, distributing
vehicles, storage facilities, needles, syringes, tongue depressors, BP cuff, Stethoscope,
ventilation mask, adult airways, among others (Chao et al., 2011).
Limitations
Limitations are the bottlenecks to the implementation of any emergency response plan,
particularly in the health sector. Lack of enough health practitioners to deal with the spread of
influenza strain is one of the limitations that I’m likely to encounter as an Emergency Manager.
Having sufficient health workers is very important in dealing with a disaster like this one. In this
case, I might be forced to call for help from other neighboring countries. Also, inadequate
resources is another limitation that I’m likely to encounter. Resources such as vaccines,
emergency kits, funds, etc. are always limited. Finally, the available capacity in the health
facilities might not be enough to accommodate all the patients that require specialized treatment.
In this case, patients might be forced to share beds, a situation that can worsen the spread of
influenza strain.
References
Equels, J., & Sullenberger, J. (2014). Do you have a disaster management plan? Florida Bar
News, 41(12), 24.
Chao, D., Matrajt, L., Basta, N., Sugimoto, J., Dean, B., Bagwell, D., . . . Longini, I. (2011).
Planning for the Control of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Los Angeles County and the
United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 173(10), 1121-1130.
3rd
1 day ago
Week 12
Ibrahim Aljaafari
COLLAPSE
Introduction
Influenza that has been described as being one of the dangers in the history of medical
treatment has invaded the country leading to the death of many people and devastating the lives
of a hundred thousand others. Eventually, this has made the country and the medical institutions
to run short of resources to counter the fast-spreading of influenza. As such, as an emergency
manager, I have been appointed to develop a plan on how I would help in the distribution of the
available scarce influenza vaccine by deciding who will and not receive the vaccine.
Planning
One of the considerations I would consider implementing in my plan to help in the
prevention of infectious influenza is the addition of more employees. Ideally, prevention of
influenza requires sufficient nursing practitioners to aid in the process of vaccinating all people
who are at a higher risk of being infected (Wimberly, 2018). Enough workers will help medical
institutions to respond promptly to the immediate need for restoring the health of the victims. In
my plan, I will also call for the local government to respond immediately in funding the costs of
added staff that will be going in the field to vaccinate people at risk of the infection. According
to Kapur (2010), the capacity of the medical institutions is adversely affected by a shortage of
nursing care practitioners and ancillary workers, as well as insufficient funds to cater for them.
However, acknowledging that the ancillary staff may be inadequately trained to deal with disease
outbreaks, I would encourage the doctors and nurses who are well trained to exchange shifts to
ensure that the spread of the influenza is dismantled (Wimberly, 2018). Remarkably, I would set
performance targets for every nurse and doctor working out in the field and in the hospital
environment and appreciate the outstanding staff through various reward systems.
Determining who will get the vaccination
Ideally, everyone who is half a year old and above will qualify for the vaccination against
influenza. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2019), the institution
recommends that six months old people and older should qualify for the influenza vaccination
that matches with their respective age brackets and the status of their health conditions (CDC,
2019). Ideally, this is based on the fact that there some ages and health statuses that do not allow
some people to get certain types of medication. In my vaccination plan, people in high-risk areas
should also qualify for the influenza vaccination. Ideally, these are the people who are at a higher
risk of developing grave health problems. In this plan, I would also encourage people who are in
the vicinity of the nursing centers should also get the vaccination against the influenza
People who will not receive the vaccination
In my influenza prevention plan, people with weird reactions will not qualify for the
vaccination. Besides, children who are below the age of 6 months old should not receive the
vaccination (CDC, 2019). Moreover, people who are severely or moderately ill should not
receive medications until they have fully recovered. Besides, there are people who should first
consult with the medical practitioners before getting the influenza vaccination. For instance,
people with various types of allergies should first communicate about such allergies before
recommending vaccination (CDC, 2019). Additionally, care providers to people who have
asthma, which has developed for more than five years, should also not get immediate influenza
vaccination before being assessed by a medical practitioner.
References
CDC, (2019). Who should and who should not get a flu vaccine. Retrieved
from https://www.cdc.gov/flu/prevent/whoshouldvax.htm
Kapur, G. B., & Smith, J. P. (2010). Emergency public health: Preparedness and response.
Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Wimberly, A. (2018). Pandemic Planning: Estimating Disease Burden of Pandemic Influenza to
Guide Preparedness Planning Decisions for Nebraska Medicine.
4th
2 days ago
Week 12
Fahad Alharbi
COLLAPSE
As an emergency manager in charge, in a scenario where there is an outbreak of influenza in a
country with limited vaccines, it requires a proper planning process to control the disease. Since
the disease has been termed a highly infectious one, it requires a quick plan which is
professional. According to Ejeta, Ardalan, & Paton (2015), an outbreak plan or response
consists of three major features, which are contact tracing, laboratory identification, and active
monitoring of the infected persons. Therefore, the first thing to confirm is to highly controls for
isolating all the infected people in a high-efficiency room to establish negative-pressure.
Through this, the population count of the infected patients will be determined.
Secondly is to ensure occupational safety, which safeguards the physicians administering
vaccines. I will second for a population count for the nearby residents to substantiate with the
available vaccine. Once all infected patients have been isolated, the available vaccine will be
used patchily to all the nearby residents to control the highly infectious influenza. Antibiotics
will also play handy for infected patients to minimize the death toll in the treatment center. The
infected patients will be put under high surveillance to help in prevention of spread of the
disease. Any further alerts of outbreaks out of the treatment centers will help in determining the
cause of the epidemic.
Control and treatment of the infected patients will be the primary focus to support the use
of the limited and available vaccine in the specified country. A communication center will also
be programmed for efficient management while also seeking more vaccines in the treatment
process. Lastly, lab diagnosis centers will be open during the treatment process to control the
spread of the disease, while also determining if the cause is zoonotic or human. These are the
strategic techniques that will ensure efficiency and adequate control of the highly infected
influenza with the limited vaccines provided.
Reference
Ejeta, L. T., Ardalan, A., & Paton, D. (2015). Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and
Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review. PLoS currents, 7.

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