Expert Answer:Humanitarian Response and Recovery in Internationa

Answer & Explanation:It’s a response to this question: (I attached my post also)The Syrian refugee crisis has been classified as one of the largest humanitarian crises in recent history. Discuss three challenges associated with this humanitarian crisis. How would you recommend managing these challenges? Be prepared to substantiate your ideas.————————I need to provide a substantive response to my co-students and support my idea. In the attachments, you will find 3 classmates that I want a separate file for each one.Reference to appropriate authoritative resources and official websites. Must be accessible online. Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style.Each response should be at least 150 words.




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The Syrian Refugee crisis has been a hot button topic in America, with politicians using
the situation for political gain and integrating it into their overall stances on refugees in
the country. I remember hearing about it when I was in high school on the news. While
there are many challenges associated with such a complex refugee crisis, three
challenges do stick out that could potentially be worked with through coordination within
the international community.
It seems to me that the unwillingness of states in the EU and America has created a
political filibuster to progress. The effort spent to secure borders and keep refugees out
could be better used to set up sustainable refugee camps for these individuals. The
countries that denied the influx of refugees have cited mainly security and economic
reasons for their denial. However, the reasons are likely xenophobic (Heisbourg, 2015).
Germany is an exception to the stone-walling that was exhibited by other nations
(Heisbourg, 2015). They elected to open their borders to an unlimited number of
refugees, which earned them backlash on the international stage (Heisbourg, 2015). I
wonder when doing what is morally right became wrong in the eyes of other developed
nations. I understand that there are risks; however, it seems cruel to deny people who
pass screening a chance at a better life. It is unfortunate that human life has a cost and
that the burden of providing those funds and provisions falls upon countries not directly
involved in the Syrian conflict. Establishing a streamlined process to vet refugees and
distribute them among host nations in the EU might help alleviate the political strain that
is felt across the region. Also, leaders might need to be reminded that these are real
people with real lives and families, and to deny them entry based on ethnicity or
nationality is strikingly similar to what has happened in previous conflicts – with
devastating results.
The second issue that I think can be addressed is the quality of life that refugees face
when they arrive in their host countries, specifically regarding the additional strain on
healthcare systems. The influx of individuals into Lebanon has increased the country’s
population by 30% and presents a case study on the resilience that is necessary for
public health systems faced with the crisis (Ammar et al., 2016). The remarkable thing
about the Lebanese health system is that it did not crumble under the surge conditions,
but instead thrived and even improved under the increased demand conditions (Ammar
et al., 2016). The dispersion pattern of the Syrian refugees is unique in a way that might
contribute to the increased healthcare resiliency. There aren’t any refugee camps – the
refugees are primarily settled among the Lebanese population, with 17% living in
“informal tented settlements” (Ammar et al., 2016). Housing refugees this way may
facilitate the integration of the refugees into Lebanese society, and allow them to live
healthier lives. While the concept of refugee camps is well established, It might be
worthwhile to evaluate whether these are the best solution for resettlement. While
people are in camps, they are often subjected to tight living conditions contributing to
respiratory disease, limited access to water, food, and healthcare. Additionally, it may
prevent asylum-seekers from integrating into the local economy and creates a situation
where they are a burden instead of a constructive force. Moreover, the decentralization
of the population allowed the healthcare burden to be spread across the country instead
of concentrated in one or two regions (Ammar et al., 2016). The situation certainly
presents some food for thought on how we can evaluate our current practices and
potentially make improvements and modifications to systems already in place.
The third challenge that the crisis presents is the issue of international security, which is
inevitably tied to the other two problems. There have been reports of ISIL terrorists
posing as refugees to infiltrate target countries such as France (Gabiam, 2016).
Accepting refugees with expedited background and identity checks increases the
porosity of borders and likely weakens the strength of our homeland security here in the
United States and for other nations abroad. Humanitarian and national security efforts
have found themselves at odds in the case of the Syrian Refugee Crisis, which poses
issues (Gabiam, 2016). First, nations have been historically reluctant to accept massive
amounts of refugees from the crisis citing risks associated with terrorism (Gabiam,
2016). They are unwilling to invite what could be seen as a small army inside their
borders. Second, although the conditions in refugee camps are not ideal or healthy for
many, the camps provide a way for the host nations to maintain surveillance and control
over the refugee population to mitigate against criminal activity (Gabiam, 2016). Third,
and finally, the vetting process can take weeks to complete, which is too slow in the
face of an emergent crisis (Gabiam, 2016). Creating better screening systems for
refugees would enable them to have access to a better quality of life in their asylum
country while also curbing the amount of economic assistance required by camps.
Perhaps establishing camps only as a screening point instead of long-term housing
could alleviate the overcrowding and financial need they demonstrate. Establishing
required check-ins with immigration officials could also help keep track of individuals
that pass the vetting process. Humanitarian and security requirements have to be
balanced to achieve the best outcome for both the asylum country and the refugees.
Politics often create a win-lose mentality, but there is no reason we cannot look for winwin solutions as emergency managers.
Ammar, W., Kdouh, O., Hammoud, R., Hamadeh, R., Harb, H., Ammar, Z., … Zalloua,
P. A. (2016). Health system resilience: Lebanon and the Syrian refugee crisis. Journal of
global health, 6(2), 020704. doi:10.7189/jogh.06.020704
Gabiam, N. (2016). Humanitarianism, Development, and Security in the 21st Century:
Lessons from the Syrian Refugee Crisis. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 48(2), 382–
Heisbourg, F. (2015). The strategic implications of the Syrian refugee
crisis. Survival, 57(6), 7-20.
This is my response. Do not make response for this file. But support the ideas here in the
The Middle Eastern instability has presented some of the worst security and humanitarian
crises in recent history. The areas that have been in the past linked with terrorist uprising have
been affected by wars and destruction that have led to the proliferation of refugees from
countries such as Syria. The Syrian refugee crisis, in particular, has been very challenging to the
international community. The history of the Middle East, as well as the political climate of the
world, has led to three main challenges. First, there is an unwillingness among the western
countries and other nations to host the refugees. Second, there is the issue of international
security, and lastly, the refugees also face poor qualities of life when they move out of their
countries due to the shortage of support.
The issue of international security leads to Syrians not being welcome or being treated
harshly in some of the countries they go to. For instance, in some countries, there are no official
channels of registering the Syrian refugees. In Lebanon for example, the country asked the
United Nations to stop registering refugees at the border in 2015 (Center for Homeland Defense
and Security Naval Postgraduate School, 2017). The country also does not allow the Syrians to
have camps. The reason for not allowing camps to prevent the concentration of Syrians in one
place because they fear it may lead to militarization.
The Syrian refugees have also been exposed to very terrible living conditions in and out
of the camps. Even though the United Nations helps by offering foods and other needs, the high
numbers of refugees in the camps make the conditions unsafe for humans. The refugees have
crossed to countries like Jordan whose economies are not very strong where they have relatives
and live among the people. There are already shortages in the infrastructure and resources like
water and housing are not enough (Gabiam, 2016). People have to live in warehouses and other
shelters. Such living conditions expose refugees to illnesses and other social problems.
The third issue that affects the Syrian crisis is the unwillingness of countries in Europe
and the Middle East to take in the refugees due to their resources being strained. At the start of
the crisis, the situation was not very bad the, and the borders were open for the refugees (Center
for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School, 2017). However, with time the
refugees became overwhelming, and some countries like Lebanon closed their borders and other
restricted the entry of the refugees to protect their citizens from too much competition for the
scarce employment opportunities and the strained resources like healthcare and others.
Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School. (2017). The Syrian
Refugee Crisis Part I: Dimensions of the Syrian Refugee Crisis.
Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School. (2017), Part III: Why did
the Syrian Refugees go to Europe.
Gabiam, N. (2016). Humanitarianism, Development, and Security in the 21st Century: Lessons
from the Syrian Refugee Crisis. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 48(2),
The Syrian Refugee Crisis is a health and humanitarian crisis that has been
exacerbated by the ongoing Syrian Civil War. Millions of Syrians have been displaced,
with more than 5 million Syrians have relocated to neighboring countries while others
have continued to reside within Syria (Aburas, Najeeb, Baageel, & Mackey, 2018). A
significant number of displaced individuals living in poverty and must rely on support
from their host countries and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (Karasapan,
2018). In addition, many also lack access to necessary health care services (Aburas et
al., 2018; Karasapan, 2018).
Many displaced individuals live in poverty and are reliant upon humanitarian aid to
survive. While these aide programs offer the refugees much-needed assistance, they
are not sustainable as they rely solely on voluntary contributions and do not assist
refugees in becoming self-reliant. When there is a lack of funding, many Syrian
refugees do not have the financial ability to support themselves (Dunmore & Sakkab,
2018). Many refugees rely on financial assistance to pay rent, buy food, and pay for
medical services (Dunmore & Sakkab, 2018). The refugees are also viewed as a
financial burden as countries such as Jordan are currently struggling through political
and economic hurdles which are not necessarily helped by the overwhelming influx of
refugees (Karasapan, 2018). Financial hurdles are one of the greatest challenges as it
affects the standard of living and potentially access to necessary care.
As poverty affects a refugee’s standard of living, it also affects their health or access to
healthcare. Organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
(UNHCR) and NGOs have assisted financially to provide refugees health care but a
financial barrier still leads to challenges for refugees in obtaining care (Karasapan,
2018). In Turkey, refugees have access to free primary health care but some services
still require co-payments and it is absolutely necessary that refugees obtain the official
status of a refugee to utilize these services (Karasapan, 2018). With a lack of access to
health care services, refugees face a high risk of poor health outcomes, inadequate
vaccination coverage, an increased likelihood of malnutrition and starvation, and
untreated mental health issues caused by traumatic exposures (Aburas et al., 2018).
Of the millions of refugees, a few million of those refugees are children. These children
are at risk of becoming a “lost generation” as millions of children are not in school or at
risk of dropping out. Furthermore, schools in Syria have either been destroyed,
damaged or occupied. The No Lost Generation cause led by UNICEF and World Vision
(n.d.) estimated that approximately 43 percent of 1.7 million school-age Syrian refugee
children are out of school.
The challenges that Syrian Refugees face are partly affected by their host country’s
ability to meet their needs. While host countries and NGOs work together to assist
refugees, there is no substantive program that works to transition refugees away from
their reliance on humanitarian aid. Depending on the country, this may not be a viable
solution as the economic resource is not available. Addressing a refugee’s financial
situation would potentially alleviate medical burdens as well. To put more children back
into schools, public education systems will need to be more inclusive. Funding and
resources will be needed to provide these children with the opportunity to attend school.
Organizations such as UNICEF and World Vision have already begun the work to
educate children and provide them with the information necessary to learn new skills.
Aburas, R., Najeeb, A., Baageel, L., & Mackey, T. K. (2018). The Syrian conflict: a case study of the
challenges and acute need for medical humanitarian operations for women and children internally
displaced persons. BMC medicine, 16(1), 65. doi:10.1186/s12916-018-1041-7
Dunmore, C. & Sakkab, A. (2018). Poorest syrian refugees facing ruin due to
underfunding. UNHCR. Retrieved from
Karasapan, O. (2018). The challenges in providing health care to syrian
refugees. Brookings. Retrieved from
UNICEF & World Vision (n.d.). Education. No Lost Generation. Retrieved from
The Syrian refugee crisis is considered to be the worst humanitarian aid crisis in recent years due
to its unprecedented challenges. These challenges have occurred not only in Syria but
neighboring and international countries. For example, Jordan has received ten percent influx in
its population due to refugees, and Lebanon has had a twenty-five percent increase in its
population (Balsari et al., 2015). These countries plus many more are experiencing economic and
infrastructural strain due to the fast-growing displaced population (Balsari, 2015). With no end to
the conflict in sight, this influx can continue to climb for another decade; countries are looking
for ways to alleviate their burdens. Ways to combat this challenge is for countries to limit
refugees’ stay in their countries or deny refugee status. The United States has limited the number
of Syrian refugees which once admitted 12,587 in 2016 to now only 62 being admitted in 2018
(Zezima, 2019). While controversial it is necessary for the hosting nation to preserve its
infrastructure and resources for its residents. By denying refugee status to Syrians they do not
receive free services such as health care (Zezima, 2019). If countries are not able to offer refugee
status but are able to provide a conditional clause such as asylum, but you must get a job and pay
taxes to remain here I think that is a viable solution. Because if the U.S. Mexico crisis has shown
us anything the people are not going to stop coming; they may not enter the way the government
wants; however, taxing people Uncle Sam or whatever government will hopefully be able to
offset some of the costs.
Another challenge in the Syrian Crisis is healthcare issues for the refugees, especially the most
vulnerable population of children. Refugee children and women who are internally or externally
displaced face higher health concerns (Aburas et al., 2018). Challenges include lack of access to
vaccines, nutritional issues, mental health because of overstimulation of trauma can lead to long
term health concerns (Aburas et al., 2018). Also,during this time of domestic crisis, violence has
risen so has the exploitation of children and gender-based crimes (Aburas et al., 2018). An
influx of this illness plus taking care of other critical patients have added a strain to an already
taxed hospital with in the country deprioritizing essential injuries. A solution to this to have
several urgent cares set up throughout the country to tend to acute illnesses. However, this led
asks the question of paying for these services. If agencies are still servicing this country, I think
its something that the UN needs to discuss doing,
The final challenge that the Syrian Refuge crisis has sparked is the rise if extremists groups
throughout the country. The whole conflict is about two opposing forces; the jihadi group has
been using suicide bombers to make their points throughout the country (Vick, 2015). 54,000
adult males are estimated to be apart of this guerilla warfare group, and as the conflict rages on,
that number is expected to climb. This area has also become one of the headquarters for ISIS
which has many nations concerned that this will attract domestic terrorists to the country to be
supported by ISIS (Vick, 2015). The only solution to solve this issue of terrorism is to stop the
war and focus resources and efforts on dismantling the group. A lot of these issues in Syrian can
be solved only once the war is over. Any solutions made prior to that will continue to fall
through because one side will always oppose the solutions.
Aburas, R., Najeeb, A., Baageel, L., & Mackey, T. K. (2018). The Syrian conflict: a case study
of the challenges and acute need for medical humanitarian operations for women and children
internally displaced persons. BMC medicine, 16(1), 65. doi:10.1186/s12916-018-1041-7
Balsari, S., Abisaab, J., Hamill, K., & Leaning, J. (2015). Syrian refugee crisis: when aid is not
enough. The Lancet, 385(9972), 942-943.
Vick, K. (2015, September 22). The Flow of Refugees Puts the Rise of ISIS in Perspective.
Retrieved November 21, 2019, from
Zezima, K. (2019, May 8). The U.S. has slashed its refugee intake. Syrians fleeing war are most
affected. Retrieved November 21, 2019, from

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