Expert Answer:Assignment and Discussions

Answer & Explanation:Task 1 Assignment:This assignment will be one of several throughout the Ph.D. program that we use to help you prepare for the dissertation process. One of the core competencies necessary to succeed in a doctoral program is the ability to identify other research that pertains to your own. This means you’ll have to identify related research, read the papers, and assimilate prior work into your research. An annotated bibliography helps you develop and hone these research skills.The paper must be in a correct APA format, use correct grammar, and will need to include at least five (5) resources, ALL of which must:1) Be current. Published within the last few years.2) Be peer-reviewed.3) Relate directly to defense in depth in the context of protecting National Infrastructure.Remember that an annotation is not the same as an abstract. Abstracts are descriptive. Your annotations are to be evaluative and critical. Give me enough information for me to decide if I’m interested enough to read the paper, and also how you perceive the paper. Do not go skimpy on these annotations, but DO NOT write too much here. Quality is far more critical than quantity. This exercise is for each of you to demonstrate that you can identify, categorize, and digest multiple research papers.The resources you choose must be peer-reviewed. That means the paper must have undergone a formal peer review before being published in a journal or presented at a conference. You must ensure that your resources have undergone rigorous reviews. In most cases, you can find out the review process for a conference or journal by visiting the appropriate web site. Do not merely assume that a resource is peer-reviewed – check it out. Here are a few URLs with additional information: (I strongly suggest that you look at these. Really.) <<<< Check out the "Rules! Rules! rules!" section Please refer below attached sample annotated bibliography. Your answer must be 1600 wordsPlease follow the APA format and separate document for each task.Task 2 Discussion:Chapter 8 - Information Governance and Legal Functions: According to the authors, Smallwood, Kahn, and Murphy, IG is perhaps one of the functional areas that impact legal functions most. Failure to meet them could be literally put an organization out of business or land executives in prison. Privacy, security, records management, information technology (IT), and business management functions are very important. However, the most significant aspect of all of these functions relates to legality and regulatory compliance from a critical perspective. Q1: When we take a close look at the author’s point of view, under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedures (FRCP) amendments dating back to 1938 there has been governance and the discovery of evidence in lawsuits and other civil cases. Please name and briefly discuss the three (3) reasons why corporations must proactively manage the e-discovery process?Note: Please refer below attached chapter 8 document. Your answer must be 1000 words and add minimum 4 referencesPlease follow the APA format and separate document for each task.Task 3 Discussion:Chapter 9 - Information Governance (IG) and Records and Information Management Functions. From the Chapter, we have learned from that Records Management (RM) is a key impact area of IG – so much that in the RM space, IG is often thought of as synonymous with or a single superset of RM. From that perspective, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defined business records as “information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction in the form of records.” Q1: To further enhance our knowledge and understanding of RM, ISO provided a more refined definition of RM to a granular level as “[the] field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of what...? Identify and complete the missing phrase to directly complete the granular definition? Note: Please refer below attached chapter 9 document. Your answer must be 1000 words and add minimum 4 referencesPlease follow the APA format and separate document for each task. annotated_bibiliography__kommineni_rajyalakshmi.docx chapter_8.pdf chapter_9_ppt.pptx Unformatted Attachment Preview Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Annotated bibliography Institution affiliation: University of the Cumberland’s Student name: Rajyalakshmi Kommineni Student Id: 002827165 Date: 09/07/2019 1 ANNOTATED BIBILIOGRAPHY 2 Göztepe, K., Kılıc, R., & Kayaalp, A. (2014). Cyber Defense in Depth: Designing Cyber Security Agency Organization for Turkey. Journal of Naval Science and Engineering, 10(1), 1-24. Retrieved from: pth_dho.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1555306 848&Signature=a0BQbY99d4x3VdpB8nXLULXasEE%3D&response-contentdisposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DCyber_Defense_in_Depth_Designing_Cyb er_S.pdf The article main argument is that since the current generation has greatly shifted to technologically related devices with the use of the internet of thing, the world is now majorly influenced by cyber activities. In a similar manner the author argues that the national attacks on the government administrations have shifted from major attacks to cyber-attacks where cases of hacking and leakages of information have become rampant. The article goes further to warn that with the increased cases, the government should invest in research and development to ensure that the sty ahead of the enemies. In the current world, a majority of the countries have designed systems that aim at ensuring government organizations are well protected from such cases. In this case, the main aim of the government is to ensure that they focus in cyber penetration of the defense systems, logic bombs as well as the use of microchips that are inserted in the rear door systems. The cyberweapons’ main targets are usually critical government infrastructures such as the legal digital software’s. This article will be useful in the research as it will provide the basic insight that even though a government may have a powerful army, that may not be enough. In that powerful computers are string knowledge in the cyber field is also necessary as a reinforcement to the military power. ANNOTATED BIBILIOGRAPHY 3 Harrop, W., & Matteson, A. (2015). Cyber resilience: A review of critical national infrastructure and cyber-security protection measures applied in the UK and USA. In Current and Emerging Trends in Cyber Operations (pp. 149-166). Palgrave Macmillan, London. This is an article that warns about the danger that lies behind the computer screens. In the current society majority of the information from many of the government organizations and the defense systems are stored in computer system. Notably, most of the operations are dependent on computer systems. The articles note that there are strong forces behind the computers that are harming the technology-dependent world. The author gives an example that today a private smart home meter, as well as the GPS, can be hacked and be scheduled for remote programming which will benefit the attackers. As a result, the state's operations are interfered with and the intellectual, as well as confidential information, put in danger. Through this, the attackers may have access to the owner’s grid systems or the water treatment plants remotely. Notably, cyber activities are becoming the greatest concern of the government since they possess the ability to cause immense damage. For instance, countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States have over the past years placed a great investment pertain the existence of cybersecurity systems t ensure that their economies remain stable with the numerous attack attempts. Finally, the article notes that cybersecurity is on the fifth agenda on the united states national development agendas. However, this article fails to give recommendations on the ways that the government can use to prevent cyber-attack occurrences. With the enriched knowledge n the subject the article will serve as a critical research in this research. ANNOTATED BIBILIOGRAPHY 4 Maglaras, L. A., Kim, K. H., Janicke, H., Ferrag, M. A., Rallis, S., Fragkou, P., & Cruz, T. J. (2018). Cybersecurity of critical infrastructures. ICT Express, 4(1), 42-45.Retrived from: This is a peer-reviewed article that highlights the concepts relating to Modern Security and Data acquisition(SCADA). SCADA is an essential system that aids in the management automated systems through provision of monitoring indicator. Some of the applications of SCADA are in the power generation systems involving transmission and its distribution. This is an article that will be significant for the research since it points out the uses of SCADA in the present age of the internet of things. Notably, SCADA has many security methods that can be applied in the defense forces for the protection of the national infrastructure. Most importantly, SCADA can be used in the both the high efficiency as well as the real-time intrusion systems with minimal overhead costs. In addition, the article notes about the distributed control systems and the industrial control systems and the role they have played in industrial, manufacturing and energy sectors. In addition, with regard to the defense sector, these systems can be used in overcoming hostile intruders who aims at mounting attacks on the daily operations of the state. Nunes-Vaz, R., & Lord, S. (2014). Designing physical security for complex infrastructures. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 7(3), 178192. This article employs the use of in-depth security principles to enrich the research with practical guidance about the designs relating to physical security for complex infrastructures. The article relates about the measures that are necessary while working from a central tenet of a security-indebth in the case where the strengths originate from placing the focus on the success of the subsystems. In addition, the article provides further guidance relating to the design if national ANNOTATED BIBILIOGRAPHY 5 security infrastructures. The article goes ahead to relate to the practical frameworks that should be used in the assessment of the overall risks in the system. In this case, the broad threat and the hazard of space are taken into consideration. It is an approach that takes into consideration about an organization structure inters of managements that they can ensure consistency while coming up with a design which will ensure that both if the internal and external policies, as well as the legal constraints, are looked into. This is a source that will prove to be useful in the research as it provides a detailed case sample of a security case and the particulars to be observed when carrying out the design. Alcaraz, C., & Zeadally, S. (2015). Critical infrastructure protection: Requirements and challenges for the 21st century. International journal of critical infrastructure protection, 8, 53-66. This is a peer-reviewed article whose main discussion is about the critical infrastructure supporting the modern economy. The main emphasis of the article is on the reliability of the safety, system performances and critical infrastructure protection whose main focus is the national priorities for the global nations who have the interest of protecting themselves against the cyber-attacks. The main reason why I choose this source because it relates to the threats and vulnerabilities facing the modern infrastructure with regard to the use industrial control systems. Notably, the article is also enriched with contents about the protection measures that should be put in place. In this part, the article relates that one of the most challenging areas when dealing with cyber mitigations is on the government security management systems, modeling, and simulations of the systems, improvement of privacy and awareness and securing architecture networks. The article will be useful as it presents and will be used as secondary supporting information. The article will be ANNOTATED BIBILIOGRAPHY 6 useful in this research and through supplementation other sources in adding critical information on the matter. Nugraha, Y., Brown, I., & Sastrosubroto, A. S. (2016). An adaptive wideband Delphi method to study state cyber-defense requirements. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, 4(1), 47-59. This is a peer-reviewed and scientific article that focuses on the study of the defense systems through the use of the Delphi method. In this case, the article reveals about the global surveillance systems relating to communication that are used by the intelligence services. In addition, the article also about the critical steps that are taken by the countries with the highest defense systems such as Indonesia in the bid to offer protection to their national defense systems. The article has placed a lot of effort in the Delphi method that can be employed in the study of other government intelligence responses. Besides, this article adds on the understanding of the concerns with regard to the cyber issues and extent of damage they can cause to a nation’ intelligence. Notably, the article relates these dangers through provision of examples of previous cases relating to such occurrences. The main reason I include this article is that it will serve as a good guide about the methods that the government should employ to determine the threats as well as the measures to be out in place when the threats are confirmed. The richness of the article is seen with regard to the suggestion given on how to curb foreign surveillance on the state defense system. Setiawan, A. B., Syamsudin, A., & Sasongko, A. (2015, October). Implementation of Secure Smart Grid as Critical Information Infrastructure in Indonesia: A Case Study in Smart Grid Electricity. In 2015 Fourth International Conference on Cyber Security, Cyber Warfare, and Digital Forensic (CyberSec) (pp. 34-39). IEEE. ANNOTATED BIBILIOGRAPHY 7 This is a peer-reviewed article whose main focus is on the smart grid system. This is one of the critical areas of this research. The research combines both the energy infrastructure as well as the telecommunication infrastructures in relation to the internet networks. As a result of this, smart grid systems are carefully designed and operated to meet the needs of the critical infrastructure. The main reason for the inclusion of this article, in this case, is because of its comprehensively of presenting a case study for smart electricity and critical infrastructure. Notably, the main interest of the article will provide a great deal of knowledge on the various ways through the defense infrastructures as well as the security policies can be improved. In addition, the article findings were supported by both quantitative and qualitative research methods thus elaborating comprehensively about the risks on the security systems. ITS 833 – INFORMATION GOVERNANCE Chapter 8 IG and Legal Functions Dr. Geanie Asante Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 1 CHAPTER GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ➢ What is the key functional area for IG impact? ➢ How does IG impact legal functions in an organization? ➢ What are the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP)? ➢ How is e-discovery affected by the FRCP? Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 ➢ Outline the holding of Zubulake v. UBS ➢ ➢ Know the facts and how it affects IG and e-discovery What are currently e-discovery techniques 2 CHAPTER GOALS AND OBJECTIVES…Continued ➢ What is the e-discovery reference model? ➢ What is it used for? ➢ How does IG impact EDiscovery? ➢ What is a record retention policy? ➢ What are the benefits of a record retention policy? Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 ➢ What is predictive coding ➢ What case law impacted the use of predictive coding? ➢ What is Technology Assisted Review ➢ What are the 8 steps to defensible disposition of information? 3 Key Legal Processes Impacted by IG ➢ E-Discovery ➢ Legal Hold Notification ➢ Defensible Disposition ➢ Use of new technology to comply with E-discovery Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 4 E-DISCOVERY “Discovery”: Pretrial procedure in a lawsuit in which each party, through the law of civil procedure, can obtain evidence from the other party or parties by means of discovery devices such as a request for answers to Interrogatories, Requests for Production of Documents, Request for Admissions and depositions. Discovery can be obtained from non-parties using subpoenas. When a discovery request is objected to, the requesting party may seek the assistance of the court by filing a motion to compel discovery. The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure govern civil proceedings in the United States district courts. Their purpose is "to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action and proceeding." Fed. R. Civ. P. 1. The rules were first adopted by order of the Supreme Court on December 20, 1937, transmitted to Congress on January 3, 1938, and effective September 16, 1938. Wikipedia Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 5 RELEVANT 2006 CHANGES TO THE RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE ➢ Revisions applicable to preservation of electronic records in the litigation process ➢ Revisions applicable to the discovery of electronic records in the litigation process Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 Applicable to “ESI”- Any information that is created or stored in electronic form GOAL of 2006 revision: ✓ Recognize importance of ESI ✓ Respond to increasingly prohibitive costs of document reviews ✓ Protection of privileged information 6 FRCP AMENDED 2006 ARE APPLICABLE TO WHAT? ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Cases in Federal Court Civil Cases All types of e-documents stored on all types of storage devices and communication devices All content on those devices including metadata Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 7 Consider the Impact of “Big Data” ➢ The average Employee creates roughly 1 gig of data annually (and growing) ➢ Costs associated with “dark data” ➢ Unknown or useless data ➢ Identify which data is important and relevant and classify, prioritize, and schedule the systematic disposition of other data in a legally defensible way ➢ Statistics: Approximately 25 % has real business value. 5 % required to be retained as business records. 1% retained due to litigation hold.—On the average 69% has no business, legal or regulatory value, and could be a legal liability to the company Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 8 REVISED FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE FRCP 1 – Scope and Purpose: To secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action. (Volonino and Reddpath, e-Discovery for Dummies, January 20, 2018) How does this involve IG ➢ ? IG must make sure information is organized in a way that it can be accessed quickly Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 9 FRCP 1 Rule 1. Scope and Purpose These rules govern the procedure in all civil actions and proceedings in the United States district courts, except as stated in Rule 81. They should be construed, administered, and employed by the court and the parties to secure the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action and proceeding. Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 10 REVISED FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE FRCP 16 – Pretrial Conferences, How does this involve IG Scheduling; Management. ➢ Court expects IT and Guidelines for preparing for and network literacy of both managing the e-discovery process. sides, so that pretrial (Volonino and Reddpath, e-Discovery for Dummies, conferences regarding January 20, 2018) discoverable evidence are productive Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 11 FRCP 16 Rule 16. Pretrial Conferences; Scheduling; Management (a) PURPOSES OF A PRETRIAL CONFERENCE. In any action, the court may order the attorneys and any unrepresented parties to appear for one or more pretrial conferences for such purposes as: (1) expediting disposition of the action; (2) establishing early and continuing control so that the case will not be protracted because of lack of management; (3) discouraging wasteful pretrial activities; (4) improving the quality of the trial through more thorough preparation; and (5) facilitating settlement. Subsections of FRCP 16 omitted from this slide (f) SANCTIONS. (1) In General. On motion or on its own, the court may issue any just orders, including those authorized by Rule 37(b)(2)(A)(ii)–(vii), if a party or its attorney: (A) fails to appear at a scheduling or other pretrial conference; (B) is substantially unprepared to participate—or does not participate in good faith—in the conference; or (C) fails to obey a scheduling or other pretrial order. (2) Imposing Fees and Costs. Instead of or in addition to any other sanction, the court must order the party, its attorney, or both to pay the reasonable expenses—including attorney's fees—incurred because of any noncompliance with this rule, unless the noncompliance was substantially justified or other circumstances make an award of expenses unjust. NOTES Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 12 REVISED FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE FRCP 26 – Duty to Disclose; General Provisions Governing Discovery (Volonino and Reddpath, e-Discovery for Dummies, (accessed January 20, 2018) How does this involve IG ? ➢ Protects litigants from costly and burdensome discovery requests, given certain guidelines Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 13 FRCP 26 Rule 26. Duty to Disclose; General Provisions Governing Discovery Rule 26 (3)(b)(2) Limitations on Frequency and Extent. (A) When Permitted. By order, the court may alter the limits in these rules on the number of depositions and interrogatories or on the length of depositions under Rule 30. By order or local rule, the court may also limit the number of requests under Rule 36. (B) Specific Limitations on Electronically Stored Information. A party need not provide discovery of electronically stored information from sources that the party identifies as not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. On motion to compel discovery or for a protective order, the party from whom discovery is sought must show that the information is not reasonably accessible because of undue burden or cost. If that showing is made, the court may nonetheless order discovery from such sources if the requesting party shows good cause, considering the limitations of Rule 26(b)(2)(C). The court may specify conditions for the discovery. (C) When Required. On motion or on its own, the court must limit the frequency or extent of discovery otherwise allowed by these rules or by local rule if it determines that: (i) the discovery sought is unreasonably cumulative or duplicative, or can be obtained from some other source that is more convenient, less burdensome, or less expensive; (ii) the party seeking discovery has had ample opportunity to obtain the information by discovery in the action; or (iii) the proposed discovery is outside the scope permitted by Rule 26(b)(1). Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 14 REVISED FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE FRCP 26(a)(1)(c) Requires initial discovery to be made no later than 14 days after initial meeting(Rule 26(f). (Volonino and Reddpath, e-Discovery for Dummies, (accessed January 20, 2018) How does this involve IG ? ➢ IG must make sure information is organized in a way that it can be accessed quickly Copyright@Geanie Asante 2019 15 FRCP 26(A)(1)(C) (C) Time for Initial Disclosures—In General. A p ... 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