Expert Answer:assignment 3

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Rhetorical Précis
What is a rhetorical précis?
A rhetorical précis is a highly specialized, specific type of summary. It differs from the
more general summary in that emphasis is placed upon providing the rhetorical aspects
of the work under consideration. Like the summary, the goal is to provide in clear,
precise language, the main points of a piece. Essential information within the rhetorical
précis include the writer’s name, the genre and name of the piece, the way in which this
information is delivered, the main point, how the point is developed, the purpose of the
piece, and the relationship between the writer and audience. This information is
presented in only four very specific sentences as outlined below.
Outline of rhetorical précis
1. Sentence one provides the name of the author; the genre (essay, article, novel,
speech, literary criticism…etc.) and “title of the work” with the date (in
parentheses); a concise appropriate action verb, such as “claims, posits, argues,
or asserts”; followed by a comma; after which the thesis of the work is stated
(either paraphrased, directly quoted, or summed up in one concise sentence).

When directly “quoting” a passage, you must write the text using the
exact words of the original author, and you must encase the select
passage in quotation marks.

Paraphrasing a passage, means putting that passage into your own
words (use your own language) without losing any of the passage’s
content.

Summarizing a passage means condensing and putting into your own
words the important elements of the passage.
Please remember that whenever you paraphrase, directly quote, or even sum up
a passage you must follow that passage with a parenthetical citation, meaning
that within parentheses, you must insert the page number from which you
gathered the passage. If your source does not have a page number then post the
paragraph number i.e. (18) or (par. 20).
Example Sentence 1:
In her essay “Cyberspace and Identity” (1999), Sherry Turkle argues that,
“today’s life on the screen dramatizes and concretizes a range of cultural
trends that encourage us to think of identity in terms of multiplicity and
flexibility” (272).
2. Sentence two provides an explanation of how the author goes about supporting
his/her thesis, meaning the main points the author uses to support his/her
argument and the how the author arranges these supports. There are two parts
to this. Remember that brevity is important—you will not restate the details from
the work, but rather include the main supporting points, much like a plan of
development (refer to The Essay Components document for assistance with plan
of development) of the body of work along with the rhetorical method used by the
writer to develop these supports.
Rhetorical methods are patterns of organization in writing aimed at achieving a
particular effect in the reader.

Narration and Description are modes with the primary purpose of
stirring the reader’s emotions.

Exemplification, Process, Cause/Effect, Compare/Contrast,
Illustration, Definition, and Classification/Division methods aim at
helping readers understand a subject, exploring its functions, causes,
consequences, relationships to other subjects, meaning, or nature.

Argumentative and Persuasive methods seek to change readers’
attitudes or actions with regard to specific subjects.
Each kind of method/mode has its own unique qualities as well as
characteristics that are common to a variety of modes.
Example Sentence 2:
Turkle supports her assertion by comparing theories of cyberspace and identity
formation with older understandings of identity found in psychology, sociology,
and philosophy.
3. Sentence three states the main purpose of the piece and what the author is
hoping to inspire in the reader. What does he/she want us to do with this
information? This is accomplished with an “in order to” phrase. It should be
written as: His/her purpose is X in order to Y. See example below.
Example Sentence 3:
Her purpose is to show readers that theories on cyberspace and identity, which claim
that identity is multiple and cyclical, do not overturn, but rather add to one’s
understanding of identity in order to encourage her audience “to rethink [its]
relationship to the computer culture and psychoanalytic culture as proudly held joint
citizenship” (278).
4. Sentence four explains the author’s tone and intended audience. One may even
include how the author positions him/herself with that audience, possibly through
his/her tone.
Example Sentence 4:
Turkle’s tone assumes a highly educated audience who is familiar with theories not
only of cyberspace and identity, but sociology and psychology as well.
Sample Four-Sentence Rhetorical Précis
In her essay “Cyberspace and Identity” (1999), Sherry Turkle argues that, “today’s life on
the screen dramatizes and concretizes a range of cultural trends that encourage us to think
of identity in terms of multiplicity and flexibility” (272). Turkle supports her assertion by
comparing theories of cyberspace and identity formation with older understandings of
identity found in psychology, sociology, and philosophy. Her purpose is to show readers that
theories on cyberspace and identity, which claim that identity is multiple and cyclical, do not
overturn, but rather add to our understandings of identity in order to encourage her
audience “to rethink [its] relationship to the computer culture and psychoanalytic culture as
proudly held joint citizenship” (278). Turkle’s tone assumes a highly educated audience who
is familiar with theories not only of cyberspace and identity, but sociology and psychology as
well.
Writing Assignment 3: Annotated Works Cited
Workshop Deadlines:


Workshop has two deadlines and both must be met.
Post first draft of WA3 in the D11 forum by 11:59 PM November 12
Post peer-evaluation of WA3 in the D11 forum by 11:59 PM November 15
Final Draft Deadline:
November 21, 2019 by 11:59 PM PST
Objective: The purpose of this assignment is to give you additional practice with






online library research
primary and secondary source evaluation
literary analysis
source summarization
evaluating rhetorical elements of source
MLA citations (parenthetical and Works Cited)
WA3 and WA4 are the Research Project when put together. Some teachers like to give the
assignment in one lump sum by having students research and write an essay; however, I find
that students really need time to learn where to go for online literary research in order to find
academically viable sources for literary research, how to select their secondary sources, and
how to analyze their sources. That is why I devote one entire assignment (WA3) to just the
research part of the project. Later in WA4, you will write a comparative essay in which you
include what you have researched in WA3.
Let’s clarify
The six secondary sources (i.e. literary criticisms, academic journals, overviews, articles,
professional essays, biographies…etc.) that you select and summarize in WA3 are the ones that
you will later use in your WA4 essay. In STEP 3 of WA3, I go over the different ways to use a
secondary source OR the things to look for in a secondary source as you select your sources for
your future WA4 essay. I touch on it again in STEP 6 of the upcoming WA4.
Purpose for Creating Summaries for Sources
Back to WA3, the purpose behind having students create a summary for each of their sources is
to help them really “research” by actually taking the time to carefully read, understand, and
deconstruct their secondary sources, so that they are not just copying-and-pasting information
from that source. Unfortunately, getting to know one’s sources is an important step that
students often bypass in the Internet age. All too commonly, students tend to copy-and-paste
non-essential information from irrelevant sources. That does nothing for a person’s essay. In
fact, a lot of inaccuracy actually stems from it.
Creating a summary of our intended sources helps us understand what we are using in a very
informed way. Creating a summary also helps me and your other readers (fellow students)
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Writing Assignment 3: Annotated Works Cited
learn more about the sources that you are going to use in your research as we evaluate each
other’s writing. Thus, for WA4, we will have a better understanding of all the sources that you
are going to use in your comparative essay. We will be a lot more prepared for your analysis.
Reference Materials:
In preparation for this assignment, please do the following:




Read Chapters 3 and 11 of your WEAL textbook
Use your Flannery O’Connor: The Complete Stories book to select your two primary
Sources (2 short stories to be compared/contrasted)
Review the Rhetorical Précis instructional document with samples and carefully review
my D6 Closing Comments lecture to help you refine the structure of your
summaries
Use the OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab as a good MLA reference guide.
Overview:
Please carefully follow the provided “five-step” instructions on the next few pages to help you
complete this assignment. At the end, you must have the following items in your final draft:
• One thesis statement with plan of development for future WA4 essay
• Six rhetorical précis (one per secondary source)
• One Works Cited page with full source information for all six secondary
sources
Step-by-step instructions begin on next page.
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Writing Assignment 3: Annotated Works Cited
Instructions:
Step 1: Of the two research project options, please just choose one. This will be the basis of
your WA3 and WA4 research project. Your WA3 research will be centered on this prompt, and
in the future, you will devote WA4 to writing an essay in response to this prompt. Choose
carefully.
Option 1
Prompt: Along with Flannery O’Connor’s “A Good Man Is Hard to Find,” select another one of
her “traveling stories” in which one or more characters are traveling somewhere (or have in the
past). Assuming that her traveling stories are symbolic of the wandering believer, compare and
contrast three leading literary devices that O’Connor uses in the two stories to reveal this
journey to redemption and grace.
Common Literary Devices: conflict, allegory, imagery, symbolism, metaphor, theme,
irony, symbolism, hyperbole, foreshadowing, characterization, plot pattern, setting,
point-of-view…etc.
Option 2
Prompt: In “A Good Man Is Hard to Find,” Flannery O’Connor explores the concept of good by
consistently presenting to her readers the actions, behaviors, and qualities that are the binary
opposite of good. This is a solid example of irony, which lends itself to the absurdity in human
behavior. Compare and contrast this story to another one of O’Connor’s shorts in which she
uses this type of recurring irony throughout the story to highlight a certain concept (i.e. motif of
convergence in “Everything that Rises Must Converge,” ironic motif of displacement in “The
Displaced Person”…etc.).
For example, you could compare/contrast the ironic use of good in “A Good Man…” to
the ironic use of convergence in “Everything That Rises…” How? You would
compare/contrast the way that O’Connor uses different literary devices (i.e. hyperbole,
imagery, characterization, plot, parallelism, symbolism…etc.) to showcase this irony.
This is just an example. Get creative!
Instructions continued on next page.
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Writing Assignment 3: Annotated Works Cited
Step 2: Select your second Flannery O’Connor short story (primary source), and the literary
elements that you will compare and contrast between the two stories. Then, create your thesis
and plan of development, which must explicitly respond to the prompt that you have chosen
from the two given options in Step 1. Your thesis and plan of development must also include
the titles of the two O’Connor short stories that you will be comparing/contrasting and the
literary elements that you will be comparing/contrasting. This step will help you focus your
research, which will undoubtedly save you time in the researching process. Later on, you will
also be able to just plug-in this thesis/plan of development into your future WA4 essay.
Example thesis and plan of development of a comparative essay:
Flannery O’Connor’s “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” (1953) and “Everything That Rises
Must Converge” (1965) both contain a travelling setting within which deeply flawed
leading characters, passing symbolic images, and ironic elements comparably guide
the journey of the wandering believer to redemption.
Step 3: Research to find your six secondary sources (literary criticisms, academic journals,
articles, professional essays, biographies…etc.), preferably three for “A Good Man Is Hard to
Find” and three for the other O’Connor story that you will be using. The databases from which
you may select your secondary sources are Literature Resource Center, Academic Search
Premier, Professional Development Collection, and/or Gale Virtual Reference Library, or any books
on the author’s life and works. As you select your sources, please consider how you may
possibly use the source in your future WA4 essay. You may want to ask yourself the following
questions:

Can I use this source to introduce my topic? The introductory paragraph is a good place
to include a quote from a secondary source regarding the genre of the writing;
biographical information about the author; or provide some general insight into her
works as a whole, particularly if the passage is from an overview, a book
preface/foreword, an abstract, or a biographical article/essay.

Will I be using this source to directly support/amplify any of my own ideas or points? For
example, you may find a quote about the way that O’Connor uses symbolism in “A Good
Man…” and want to incorporate it into your own future WA4 essay because it
strengthens your own argument regarding “the symbolism of the cloud patterns in
O’Connor’s stories.”
Instructions continued on next page.
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Writing Assignment 3: Annotated Works Cited

Will I be using this source to perfectly conflict with any of my ideas or points, which I will
then rebut to/refute and counter-argue? This approach, if done properly, adds
dimension to your essay and is a mark of a good writer. NOTE: This approach must be
used for at least one of your sources. You will need to provide a refutation or rebuttal
paragraph in your future WA4 essay. For now, you must select at least one secondary
source that you will plan on rebutting/refuting and counter-arguing.

Will I be using this source because it has given me a new understanding of the story or
some element of the story? For example, you may find in one of your secondary sources
some idea about “the grandmother’s character” that you had not considered before.
You could then use that idea by the critic who wrote the literary criticism and explain
this new perspective to the grandmother’s character. This approach shows that you are
willing to include other people into your essay and credit them for their great
insight. This approach is an echo of one of your WA1 prompts.

Will I be using this source because it contains a general statement that I accept by the
writer and would like to incorporate into my work in a “specific” manner, perhaps in a
way not originally intended by the writer? For example, the author of the secondary
source could make a statement about the general theme of redemption in O’Connor’s
works, but you would like to use it only in application to the Misfit’s character. That may
not be how the critic originally intended it, but that is how you will use it to support your
argument.

Will I be using this source because it contains a specific statement that I accept by the
writer and would like to incorporate into my work in a more “general” manner, perhaps
in a way unintended by writer? For example, a critic makes a statement that the
grandmother in “A Good Man…” is a product of her Southern environment that
embraces the Jim Crow sensibility. You may want to apply that into your future WA4
essay, but for both the Grandmother and Julian’s mother because it seems to apply to
both. Thus, you are using it in a more general sense that transcends the specific original
use of the statement.

Can I close my entire essay with a quote from this source? The concluding paragraph is
also a good place to include a quote from a secondary source regarding the author or
her works, particularly if the passage is from an overview, a foreword, an abstract, or a
biographical source.
Instructions continued on next page.
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Writing Assignment 3: Annotated Works Cited
Research Instructions






Access the Cuyamaca College online Library, select Research Databases, and scroll down
to select a resource center/database to access: Academic Search Premier, Literature
Resource Center, Professional Development Collection, Gale Virtual Reference
Library…etc.
Enter your username and user password as directed on the login page.
Once you have reached the search page, type your subjects name or title in the
provided search engine, adjust the search options if you would like to narrow your
search, and click “Search” to get your results.
For the LRC, make sure that you are searching through Critical Essays or Literary
Criticisms.
Now, you must sift through various literary criticisms, academic articles, professional
essays, and such, regarding each story that you have chosen or the author. You must
then select three that you would most like to analyze and summarize for each story,
making a collective six secondary sources. Use the question guide in Step 3 to help you
select sources that would best support your future “WA4” argument.
Once you have selected your literary criticisms, articles, or essays; make sure to email
your selected sources to yourself, so you have it on file.
Step 4: Now that you have selected your six secondary sources, you must create a rhetorical
précis for each one to fulfill the summary portion of this exercise. You will create a total of six
four-sentence rhetorical précis. Here is a direct link to the Rhetorical Précis instructional guide
with a sample guide.
Note: Just like in Writing Assignment 1, use the four-sentence formula of the rhetorical
précis, making sure not to deviate from the set structure and sequence of words.
Remember, there should only be four sentences in your précis, and each one must serve
its own designated function as instructed, exemplified, and carefully reviewed in class.
Please use my D6 Closing Comments lecture to strengthen the structure of your
rhetorical précis.
Step 5: Create a Works Cited page consisting of your eight source entries. Your two primary
sources and six secondary sources.
IMPORTANT NOTE:
Remember that this is simply the first part of the research project. You will not be writing the
essay in this assignment. That will be done later in Writing Assignment 4.
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Writing Assignment 3: Annotated Works Cited
Rubric:
Workshop
10 points
Thesis w/Plan of Development
10 points
Sentence 1 of Rhetorical Précis
Sentence 2 of Rhetorical Précis
Sentence 3 of Rhetorical Précis
Sentence 4 of Rhetorical Précis
15 points
15 points
15 points
15 points
Syntax
10 points
Citations
10 points
________________________________________
Total
100 points
Required Elements:
The following revising and editing checklist is my criteria for grading.
_____ Use of only the Gale Virtual Reference Library, Literature Resource Center, Professional
Development Collection, and/or Academic Search …
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