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Fall 2019 PSY2110/5110 Research Report #2

Independent Measures t-test and Power (15 points): Due Weds., October 23 at beginning of class

Projects must be typed. No late projects will be accepted.

*The overall organization and written presentation of your project will factor in the grading*

*Instructors can give a grade of zero (“0”) to any project considered (by the instructor) to

be poorly organized, poorly written, lacking professional quality, and so forth!!*

Peer-tutoring Lab:

*Similar to project #1, the Peer Lab is a great place to get assistance for your project

*The lab will not have any printers.

*Do not wait until the last night before an exam or a project is due before you seek

assistance in the lab.

Homework Packet:

In the homework packet from page 172 to page 211 are instructions on how to complete

the projects. Keep in mind, your specific project will have some slight differences than the

summarized instructions. It is your responsibility to follow the specific guidelines and questions

on this document given by your instructor.

Independent Measures t-test and Power Project:

For this project you will be collecting data on some type of group difference and performing a

variety of descriptive statistics using SPSS and the skills learned in class. First, you will need to collect

data on some type of group difference. For example, a group difference you might want to investigate is

gender differences. In society there are many perceived gender differences. Some of these perceived

gender differences may exist and others may only be false stereotypes. If you want, you can use gender

as one of your variables and then select a second variable you wish to investigate. Choose a variable that

is of interest to you such as academics, a hobby, or even a stereotype you believe may be inaccurate.

If you are not interested in gender differences, there are many other groups that you could

investigate. For example, you could examine students in a Greek organization versus students not in a

Greek organization. You could study students who live on-campus versus students who live off-campus,

or even people who exercise daily versus people who do not exercise at all.

First, select the two groups of people you want to study (eg., men & women). Then select a

variable you wish to investigate (e.g., number of study hours per week a freshman studies). The more

creative you are, the better! Further, collect data that you might be able to utilize for future projects in this

course. (**Please note that RR#2 is an Independent Samples t-test. Therefore, we would hope that

you could use your same data for RR#1 AND RR#2. Using Interval or Ratio data for a Dependent

Variable is necessary. Nominal data for your Dependent Variable would not be appropriate)!

**Make sure that your dependent variable meets the Institutional Review Board’s (IRB)

criteria. Pages 212-216 of the Homework Packet provides information on which variables and

topics are NOT exempt from receiving automatic institutional approval.

Collect data from exactly ?? people in your first group, and exactly ?? people in your

second group. (So if you are investigating gender differences, for example, collect data from exactly ??

females and ?? males). Ask each participant your question or get your measurement. Please try and

keep the subject responses confidential (you will be more likely to get honest and accurate

answers—this also protects the subject). Record your data in a table that includes the participants’

group and their response.

1

Complete the following:

Your data should be summarized demonstrating the mean and standard deviation for each group.

Provide the SPSS output for means and standard deviations.

**be sure to add a copy of your raw data**

(1 point)

**When completing this project, please watch for differences between the project guidelines, the

versions of SPSS, and the instructions in the Homework Packet

1.

Write an introduction explaining the following:

(3 points)

a)

how and where you collected your data

b)

what you controlled for and could not control for as a researcher

(that is, explain what other influences or independent variables

that you could/did not control that may have resulted in your data set not

accurately representing your groups)

c)

why you are studying these particular variables

d)

what you expect to find, and WHY!

e)

the independent and dependent variables

2.

Name and discuss the assumptions associated with an independent samples t-test. Have you

violated these assumptions? Explain your decision.

(1.5 points)

3.

Conduct a two-tailed hypothesis test with α = 0.05 to determine if one group responded

statistically different than the other group. For your hypothesis test be sure to:

A)

State your hypotheses in words and symbols.

(1 point)

B)

Set up your criteria for making the decision. That is,

find the critical value.

(0.5 points)

C)

Based on your SPSS output, report the appropriate test-statistic.

Include your SPSS output.

(1 point)

D)

Evaluate and interpret the null hypothesis.

(1 point)

4.

Compute the 95% confidence interval.

A)

Include your SPSS output. What was the mean difference, the standard error, and

the critical values that were utilized?

(1 point)

B)

Interpret your confidence interval.

(0.5 points)

5.

If you changed your α = 0.01, what would your new critical value be? Would this change your

decision regarding your null hypothesis?

(0.5 points)

6.

Whether you have found a significant difference or not, compute Power (at α = 0.01). Provide

your output from G*Power!

(3 points)

A)

Discuss your findings and interpret Power as it relates to your project. Is the

Power value consistent with how you evaluated the null hypothesis?

Why or why not?

7.

What are your conclusions? That is, briefly summarize your project and explain why you believe

the results turned out the way they did. Is this what you expected to find? Make sure your

conclusions address all comments you made in your introduction.

Further, in your opinion, do you think your results would remain the same in the larger

population…why or why not?

(1 point)

2

G* Power

Under statistical test select: Means: Difference between two independent means

(two groups)

Under Type of power analysis select: Post hoc: Compute achieved power-given α,

sample size, and effect size

Under Input Parameters: Change to two tail and change ‘α err prob’ to .01 and put

in the sample size for group 1 and group 2

Now click on “Determine”

To the right a new pop-up box will appear.

Next, Input: the mean for group 1, mean group 2, sd group 1, sd group 2

Click ‘calculate’ and transfer to main window and then click “Calculate” in main

window.

You should now see your Power analysis!

**Please check with your individual instructor to determine exactly

what should be included in your Research Report #2 with regard to

G*Power output.

I expect most instructors will want BOTH the overlapping

distributions as well as the data output box**

3

Student: ________________________________________

Total Points:

/ 15

Points Configuration for Project 2

Part I. Introduction

___ (1/2) How and where you collected your data.

___ (1) Controlled (1/2) and uncontrolled (1/2) variables.

___ (1/2) Why you are studying these variables.

___ (1/2) What you expect to find.

___ (1/2) The independent and dependent variables.

___ / 3

Part II. Name and Discuss Assumptions

___ (1/2) Name assumptions.

___ (1/2) Discuss assumptions.

___ (1/2) How you know the assumptions were not violated.

___ / 1.5

Part III. Conduct a 2-tailed Hypothesis Test

___ (1) State your hypothesis in words (1/2) and symbols (1/2).

___ (1/2) Critical value.

___ (1) Summarize data into appropriate test statistic (1/2) and include SPSS output (1/2).

___ (1) Evaluate and interpret the null hypothesis.

___ / 3.5

Part IV. Compute the 95% Confidence Interval

___ (1) SPSS output, what were the mean difference (1/3), the standard error (1/3) and critical values (1/3).

___ (1/2) Interpret your confidence interval.

___ / 1.5

Part V. If you Changed your Critical Value to = 0.01

___ (1/4) What would your new critical value be.

___ (1/4) Would this change your decision about your null hypothesis.

___ / 0.5

Part VI. Compute the Effect Size and Power

___ (1) Output from Sample Power.

___ (1) Discuss the method of computing Power (1/3), why it was used (1/3), and

what estimations were made (1/3).

___ (1/2) Discuss your findings and interpret Power.

___ (1/2) Is your Power value accurate? Why or why not.

___ / 3

Part VII. Conclusions

___ (1/3) Explain why you obtained your results.

___ (1/3) Were your results expected?

___ (1/3) Address relevant concerns in the paper.

___ / 1

Part IX. Obtained Data

___ (1) Copy of all obtained data.

___ / 1

Total Points:

____ / 15

…

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