Expert answer:discussion #10 medical terminology

Solved by verified expert:part1: Let’s look at surgical terminology this week–pick a surgery related to the disgestive system and briefly describe it. part2: when you sent me part1, i will send you 2 student’s pity, then Respond to another student with either an instrument used in that surgery or the pathology that the surgery addresses with a brief description.
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Chapter 10
Digestive System
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lesson 10.1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
State the four major functions of the digestive
system, and analyze associated terminology.
Write the meanings of the word parts associated with
the upper and lower digestive tract, and use them to
build and analyze terms.
Write the names of the major structures of the
digestive system, define the terms associated with
these structures, and label the structures.
List the three classes of nutrients and their functions.
State the function of the accessory organs of
digestion, and analyze associated terms.
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2
Four Functions of the Digestive
System




1. Ingestion of food
2. Digestion of food
3. Absorption of nutrients
4. Elimination of wastes
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3
Accessory Organs Functions






Aid chemical breakdown of food
Filtration of blood
Breakdown of toxic compounds
Storage of iron and some vitamins
Synthesis of plasma proteins
Regulation of blood glucose levels
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4
Three Classes of Nutrients

1. Carbohydrates: glyc(o) = sugar
Examples: glucose; starches (amyl(o) = starch)


2. Proteins: prote(o)
3. Fats: lip(o)
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5
Digestive Chemicals


Bile: bil(i), chol(e)
Enzymes: lipase, lactase, proteinase,
amylase
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6
Word Parts for Digestion and
Nutrition
Functions
-dipsia
-orexia
-pepsia
-stalsis

thirst
appetite
digestion
contraction
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7
Word Parts for Digestion and
Nutrition
Substances
amyl(o)
bil(i), chol(e)
glyc(o)
lact(o)
lip(o)
prote(o)

starch
bile or gall
sugar
milk
fats
protein
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
8
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9
Word Parts: Major Structures
Upper GI Tract
mouth
pharynx or throat
esophagus
stomach
pylorus

or(o), stomat(o)
pharyng(o)
esophag(o)
gastr(o)
pylor(o)
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10
Word Parts: Major Structures
Lower GI Tract: Small Intestine
small intestine
enter(o)*
duodenum
duoden(o)
jejunum
jejun(o)
ileum
ile(o)
*enter(o) sometimes means the intestines in
general

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11
Word Parts: Major Structures
Lower GI Tract: Large Intestine
large intestine
col(o), colon(o)*
rectum
rect(o)
anus
an(o)
*col(o) and colon(o) sometimes refer specifically
to the colon, the larger portion of the large
intestine.

Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
12
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
13
Word Parts: Major Structures
Accessory Organs
gallbladder
cholecyst(o) cholecystic
common bile duct choledoch(o) choledochal
liver
hepat(o)
hepatic
pancreas
pancreat(o) pancreatic
salivary glands
sialaden(o), sial(o) sialic

Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
14
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
15
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
16
Dentistry: Dental Specialties
 orthodontics, orthodontist
 periodontium, periodontics, periodontist
 endodontium, endodontics, endodontist
 pedodontics, pedodontist
 gerodontics, gerodontist
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
17
Word Parts: Upper Digestive Tract
bucc(o)
cheil(o)
dent(i), dent(o), odont(o)
gingiv(o)
cheek
lip
teeth
gums
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18
Word Parts: Upper Digestive Tract, (cont.)
gloss(o), lingu(o)
palat(o)
mandibul(o)
maxill(o)
tongue
palate
mandible (lower jaw)
maxilla (upper
jaw/cheekbone)
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
19
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
20
Quick Quiz!
What is the name for the most distal part of the
stomach, which empties into the duodenum?
A. antrum
B. hard palate
C. pylorus
D. submucosa
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
21
Upper Digestive Tract




pharynx
esophagus, esophageal
upper and lower (cardiac) esophageal
sphincters
postesophageal
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
22
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
23
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
24
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
25
Lower Digestive Tract

Intestines, bowels



24 ½ – 28 feet long total
small intestine: 20-23 feet (digestion +
absorption)
large intestine—larger diameter, shorter in
length
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
26
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
27
Word Parts: Large Intestine
col(o), colon(o)
cec(o)
append(o), appendic(o)
proct(o)
sigmoid(o)
diverticul(o)
large intestine or
colon
cecum
appendix
anus, rectum
sigmoid colon
diverticula
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
28
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29
Functions: Large Intestine




absorbs water, sodium, chloride
secretes mucus
its bacteria produce several vitamins
forms and expels waste as feces
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30
Accessory Organs of Digestion




liver
gallbladder
pancreas
salivary glands
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31
Functions: Liver




production of bile for storage in the gall
bladder
lipid metabolism
synthesis of plasma proteins
involved in the regulation of blood glucose
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
32
Functions: Liver, (cont.)





filters the blood
breakdown of toxic compounds
stores iron and certain vitamins
excretion of bile pigments from the
breakdown of hemoglobin
excretion of hormones and cholesterol
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
33
Liver and Gall Bladder Terminology



hepatic, hepatolytic, hepatotoxic
extrahepatic, suprahepatic
cholecystic, cholecystogastric, choledochal
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
34
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
35
Pancreas Terminology




pancreatic functions: digestive + hormonal
enzymes: amylase, lipase
hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia
glucagon, insulin
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
36
Lesson 10.2
6. Write the names of the diagnostic tests and
procedures for assessment of the digestive system
when given their descriptions, and match them with
the digestive structures.
7. Match terms for digestive system pathologies with
their meanings, or write the names of the
pathologies when given their descriptions.
8. Match the pathologies of accessory organs of
digestion with their meanings, or write the names of
the pathologies when given their descriptions.
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
37
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures



inspection, auscultation, percussion,
palpation
abdominal x-ray
endoscopy
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38
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures,
(cont.)




fluoroscopy
esophagram, esophagogram
barium swallow, barium meal
barium enema
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
39
Figure 10-10 From Carlson K, Eisenstat S: Primary care of women, 1995, Mosby.
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
40
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures, (cont.)




CT
cholangiography
pancreatography
sialography
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
41
Quick Quiz!
Which substance increases blood glucose
levels?
A. insulin
B. barium
C. lipase
D. glucagon
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
42
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
43
Figure 10-12C From Aspinall RJ, Taylor-Robinson SD: Mosby’s Color Atlas and Text of
Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, London, 2002, Mosby, Ltd.
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
44
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures, (cont.)



sonography
nuclear imaging
liver function tests (LFT):




serum bilirubin
alkaline phosphatase
aspartate aminotransferase (AST or serum
glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT])
alanine transferase (ALT or serum glutamicpyruvic transaminase [SGPT])
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
45
Diagnostic Tests and Procedures, (cont.)




stool samples
occult blood, hematochezia
guaiac test
malabsorption
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46
Pathologies: Digestive System





anorexia, anorexia nervosa
emaciation
bulimia
malnutrition, malabsorption
emesis, hyperemesis, hematemesis
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47
Figure 10-13 From Sapp JP, Eversole LR, and Wysocki GW: Contemporary Oral and
Maxillofacial Pathology, ed. 2, St. Louis, 2004, Mosby.
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
48
Pathologies: Digestive System, (cont.)




obesity: exogenous, endogenous
polyphagia, dysphagia
polydipsia, diabetes mellitus, adipsia
dyspepsia, eructation, hiccup (hiccough)
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49
Pathologies: Upper GI Tract





aphagia
stomatitis
stomatodynia, canker sores, ulcer
herpes simplex virus (HSV)
stomatomycosis, Candida albicans
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50
Figure 10-14 Lemmi FO, Lemmi CAE: Physical assessment findings CD-ROM, Philadelphia, 2000, Saunders.
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
51
Pathologies: Upper GI Tract, (cont.)




cheilosis, cheilitis
gingivostomatitis, gingivitis, gingivalgia,
gingivoglossitis
glossitis, glossopathy, glossoplegia,
glossopyrosis
halitosis
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
52
Pathologies: Upper GI Tract, (cont.)
Dental Pathologies
 dentalgia, caries
 endodontitis, periodontitis, pyorrhea
 malocclusion
 temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain
dysfunction syndrome
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53
Figure 10-15 Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, ed 31, Philadelphia, 2007, Saunders.
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
54
Figure 10-16 Callen JP, Greer KE, Hood et al: Color Atlas of Dermatology, Philadelphia, 1992, Saunders.
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55
Pathologies: Upper GI Tract, (cont.)




oral cancer
sialadenitis, sialolithiasis
parotitis, mumps
cleft palate, cleft lip (congenital)
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56
Figure 10-17 From Clark DA: Atlas of Neonatology, 2000, Saunders.
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
57
Pathologies: Upper GI Tract, (cont.)

Esophageal Pathologies





neoplasms, esophagomalacia
esophagitis, esophagodynia
esophageal achalasia
esophageal atresia
esophageal varices
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58
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59
Figure 10-20 From Damjanov I, Linder J: Anderson’s pathology, ed. 10, 1996, St. Louis, Mosby.
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60
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
61
Quick Quiz!
Which term means vomiting of blood?
A.
B.
C.
D.
hyperemesis
hematemesis
enterostasis
hematoma
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62
Pathologies: Lower Digestive Tract




peritonitis, appendicitis
gastroenteritis, dehydration
dysentery
malabsorption syndrome, lipopenia
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63
Pathologies: Lower Digestive Tract, (cont.)




colitis, ulcerative colitis
Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease
fistula, anal fistula
fissure
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64
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65
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66
Pathologies: Lower Digestive Tract, (cont.)




infections: parasites, bacteria, viruses
food poisoning
staphylococcal infection, Escherichia coli (E.
coli) infection
botulism, salmonellosis
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67
Pathologies: Lower Digestive Tract,
(cont.)




duodenal ulcer
duodenitis, ileitis, gastroduodenitis
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
impaction, enterostasis
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68
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69
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70
Pathologies: Liver




hepatorenal syndrome
hepatitis, hepatomegaly
jaundice
viral hepatitis: HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HDE
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71
Pathologies: Liver, (cont.)




cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis
hepatopathy
hepatosplenomegaly
hepatoma, hepatic carcinoma
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72
Pathologies: Gallbladder




cholestasis
cholangitis, choledochitis
choledocholithiasis, cholelithiasis
cholecystitis
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73
Pathologies: Pancreas



pancreatitis, pancreatolysis, pancreatic
abscess
pancreatolith, pancreatolithiasis
pancreatic carcinoma
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74
Lesson 10.3
9. Match terms for surgical and therapeutic
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
interventions for digestive tract and accessory
organ pathologies with descriptions of the
interventions, or write the names of the
interventions when given their descriptions.
Use word parts from this chapter to determine
meanings or answer questions about the terms in a
health care report.
Spell the terms accurately.
Pronounce the terms correctly.
Write the meanings of the abbreviations.
Categorize terms as anatomy, a diagnostic test or
procedure, pathology, surgery, or therapy.
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75
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76
Theraputic Interventions




enteral nutrition
parenteral nutrician
total parenteral nutrition
alimentation, hyperalimentation
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77
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78
Surgical Interventions



lipectomy, liposuction
esophagogastrostomy, esophagogastroplasty
gastropexy, gastrorrhaphy
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79
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions, (cont.)





cheilorrhaphy, glossorrhaphy
cheiloplasty, stomatoplasty,
cheilostomatoplasty
glossectomy, glossoplasty
gingivectomy
esopohagectomy, esophagomyotomy
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80
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions, (cont.)



lavage, gastric lavage
colonic irrigation
enema
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81
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions, (cont.)




antacids
vagotomy
pyloroplasty, pylorotomy
gastrectomy
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82
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83
Surgical Interventions, (cont.)




esophagojejunostomy
esophagoduodenostomy
jejunoileostomy
ileostomy
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84
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85
Surgical Interventions, (cont.)



laparoenterostomy
jejunotomy, duodenotomy
duodenostomy
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86
Surgical Interventions, (cont.)




cecoileostomy
proctoplasty
diverticulectomy
appendectomy
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87
Surgical & Therapeutic Interventions,
(cont.)





topical anesthetics
hemorrhoidectomy
antibiotics
antidiarrheals, antiemetics
laxatives
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88
Surgical Interventions, (cont.)
Accessory Organs of Digestion
 hepatic lobectomy, hepatotomy,
hepatectomy, transplantation
 pancreatotomy, pancreatectomy,
pancreatolithectomy
 diet, exercise, and weight control
 glucose-lowering agents (oral agents/insulin
by injection)
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89
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
90
Surgical & Therpeutic Interventions,
(cont.)
Accessory Organs of Digestion
 endoscopic sphincterotomy, laparoscopic
cholecystectomy
 cholecystotomy, laparocholecystotomy
 choledocholithotripsy
 choledochostomy, choledochojejunostomy
Copyright © 2009, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
91
Quick Quiz!
Which of the following is an anastomosis
between the esophagus and the duodenum?
A. esophagojejunostomy
B. eso …
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