Expert answer:Analysis of Research-Based Report Exercise

Solved by verified expert:EXERCISEThis activity asks you to analyze a report that uses research to accomplish its purpose.Pick one of these reports to analyze:Research_Clean Air_ExemplarResearch_Inclusive Ed_ExemplarResearch_Substance Use_ExemplarResearch_Traffic_ExemplarAs you skim the report, focus on the research included in each section. As you do, answer the following questions:What is the purpose of the report?What types of research do you see in the report? (Think back to Ch. 2 from Just Enough Research.)How is the research being used? How does the research contribute to the achievement of the report’s purpose?Which sections have the most research? Why do you suppose that is?Your analysis of the report should develop a sense of the role of research in professional and technical documents, which will prepare you for conducting that type of research as you complete your own work.Please submit your analysis here as a Word document




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Table of Contents
Letter to the Reader
How We Move
How We Move Things
How We Move Better
How We Adapt
How We Align Decisions and Dollars
System Implications
Highways and Motor Vehicles
Pedestrians and Bicycles
Intercity Rail
Shaping Our Future: Choices in Changing Times
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Table of Contents
Letter to the Reader
Transportation is really a simple idea. We want to move ourselves
or our things from one place to another efficiently, reliably and
safely. We, as users of the transportation system, think little of the
untold intricacies that converge so we can get to work, take
children to their activities or enjoy a cross country trip. There is
the hardscape—the roads, runways, and railways. There are the
vehicles in which we move. There are the vehicle operators and
fellow travelers with whom we share the highway, the sky or the
railroad tracks. There are the maps we use to chart our course. If
any one of these elements fail, we may reach our destination but
only after many hours have been lost. We may not get there at all.
Beyond throughput, transportation is and perhaps always has been an organizing element of our
society. Many road networks have been built upon foot worn paths of our forbearers. Along these
paths grew towns, and some of those towns grew into cities. As new forms of transportation grew
—from the horse and buggy, to the bicycle, to the locomotive, to the automobile—it became
necessary to smooth those paths and, more recently, pave them or lay rails upon them.
Transportation has both gotten us places and made places.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Letter to the Reader
As we have evolved and understood more about our transportation system, we know it to be an
interdependent system of systems that shapes and is shaped by all it touches. Clogged highways
are not per se the product of poor design. Sometimes they choke with unanticipated traffic flows
brought about by unforeseen zoning and land use decisions, regional population growth or
deferred maintenance caused by inadequate budgets or perhaps misplaced priorities. Congestion is
not limited to roads. A Midwestern farmer may have harvested several tons of grain to ship by rail
only to find limited space on freight trains due to growing competition from commodities such as
energy products. Even our commercial airspace is experiencing congestion around major hub
airports. As we grow, and as our economy grows, the challenge of moving will become even more
complicated. If we could anticipate today what will likely slow or stop our national progress, we
could plan an effective response, engage in robust debate and settle on a course of action.
Unfortunately, we have too often misstated the problem as simply one of funding when it may be
one of both resources and design.
Can we imagine a future in which traffic jams decline? Yes. How do we get beyond traffic?
Essentially, three strategies need to be employed—all of which demand increased funding and
new, more adaptive policymaking at the federal, state and local levels. First, we have to take better
care of our legacy transportation systems. We cannot cross bridges that have fallen apart or
connect commerce to ports in disrepair. Second, we must build what is new and necessary, taking
into account changes in living patterns and where products will move to and from. Third, we must
use technologies and better design approaches that will allow us to maximize the use of our old
and new transportation assets. Doing so may involve adapting new innovations in vehicle safety
and automation, improving federal, state, and local coordination, and adopting best practices in
road design.
These strategies are at variance with our current posture. The U.S. transportation system is still
proceeding under a 20th century model in which our policies, practices, and programs are
presumed to be sufficient, as are the resources devoted to them.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Letter to the Reader
Over the past six years, the United States government has passed 32 short-term measures to keep
its surface transportation system afloat. Funding uncertainty has undermined our ability to
modernize our air traffic control system. Diffuse decision-making mechanisms at the state and
local level have hampered our ability to address critical freight and trade corridors. And our
programs and policies have not been reformed to tackle the challenges of tomorrow. The
combination of these forces—inconsistent, unreliable funding, and static policies in an era of rapid
change—has left our transportation infrastructure in an increasingly deteriorated and fragile
state. It has left the United States on the precipice of losing its historical advantage in moving
people and things faster, safer, and more reliably than any other nation in the world.
It is important to note that Beyond Traffic is not an action plan and is not intended to be. It is a
survey of where we are and where current trends may take us if left unaddressed. The federal
government alone cannot achieve resolution of all of the issues and concerns the future will bring;
much decisionmaking belongs to other stakeholders, including state and local governments and
the private sector. Any comprehensive action plan would require consultation and coordinated
execution by all of these participants.
Beyond Traffic is intended to open a national dialogue about what our country really needs and
why we need it. It is a draft survey of major forces impacting transportation and a discussion of
potential solutions that can be adopted to address those forces. We hope it prompts a longoverdue national conversation. We also hope it generates a lot of thoughtful feedback to inform
the final version. Our hope is to release a final product later in 2015.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Letter to the Reader
This survey is not the first effort to capture current and future trends in transportation.
Secretaries William Coleman, Sam Skinner and Rodney Slater each published major reports in the
past to contribute to the national dialogue. Each of these efforts has involved dedicated teams
within the U.S. Department of Transportation, and Beyond Traffic is no exception. Undersecretary
of Policy Peter Rogoff and his team in the Office of Policy, as well as the Volpe Center led by Robert
Johns, have been deeply vested in overseeing the development of this product.
In perhaps the most definitive of these surveys, Secretary Coleman, in the 1977 study entitled
“National Transportation: Trends and Choices (to the year 2000)” captured the sentiments that
have guided our efforts in this work:
“National Transportation: Trends and Choices” provides a starting point for that much needed
public debate. It is an agenda of national transportation issues and alternative solutions that, from
the perspective of the Department of Transportation, appear to have merit. It is not intended as a
plan of action, although it encompasses programs and plans that already may have the force of law
at various levels of Government. It is intended to be a prospectus of what is possible, practicable,
and in the public service.
I, therefore, ask that you, the reader, accept this document in the spirit in which it was prepared—
as a basis upon which we can all build together. Your comments and criticisms are welcome—
indeed your constructive advice is essential to our task of developing truly responsible
transportation planning for the future.
Anthony Foxx
U.S. Secretary of Transportation
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Letter to the Reader
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Introduction
In the enabling legislation that gave rise to the U.S. Department of Transportation, the Secretary
of Transportation is vested with the responsibility to report on current and future conditions of
our transportation system. With the nation’s transportation system experiencing repeated trauma
due to inaction in the public sphere, such a report could not come at a more crucial time.
Beyond Traffic: Trends and Choices 2045 has been developed over the course of a year. U.S. DOT
assembled a team of internal and external experts to conduct a comprehensive examination of our
nation’s transportation system. This team shared key findings and solicited feedback in six public
webinar sessions that drew 1,300 participants. These participants included engineers, researchers,
transportation planners, pilots, truck drivers, transit operators, safety advocates and disability
rights advocates, among others.
This document is a draft. Our objective in publishing this draft is to widen the scope of public
feedback and discourse. This report is not final, and we anticipate that it will benefit from
substantial public feedback. We invite you to read this work and share your feedback at
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Introduction
Introduction: Summary in Brief
In the race to build world-class transportation, America once set the pace. We used to have a big
In the 19th century, we built the Erie Canal and Transcontinental Railroad. In the last century, we
took over building the Panama Canal, completed the Interstate Highway System, and set the world
standard in freight transport and aviation.
But our lead has slipped away. We are behind. Way behind.
The quality of our roads, for example, is no longer rated No. 1.
We’re No. 16.
And it is not just that our infrastructure is showing its age—our country, in many ways, has
outgrown it. If you drive a car, you now spend, on average, the equivalent of five vacation days
every year sitting in traffic. If you drive a truck, highway congestion has made you an expert at
navigating bumpy side roads—and you are not alone. Every year, trucks are losing $27 billion on
wasted time and fuel.
In this report, we not only analyzed the condition and performance of our transportation system
today, but forecasted how it will look and perform 30 years from now if we fail to develop a new
game plan.
Beyond Traffic reveals that, if we don’t change, in 2045, the transportation system that powered
our rise as a nation will instead slow us down. Transit systems will be so backed up that riders will
wonder not just when they will get to work, but if they will get there at all. At the airports, and on
the highway, every day will be like Thanksgiving is today.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Introduction
This is not a picture of our inevitable future. It is the objective truth—and one we hope inspires
Americans to, in a way, launch a comeback. We encourage our readers to learn about the challenges
ahead, and to think of them as opportunities. The potential is there, Beyond Traffic tells us, to
make a transportation system as amazing, frankly, as the stark scenario above is troubling—a
system that is safer, more efficient, more sustainable, and more satisfying—one that successfully
connects all Americans to the 21st century economy.
Beyond Traffic doesn’t prescribe a course of action or advocate for any specific solution. It doesn’t
provide a blueprint.
Our purpose in producing this report was to analyze the latest data and trends shaping
transportation so we could objectively frame critical policy choices that need to be made. Trends
and choices such as:
 How will we move? How will we build a transportation system to accommodate a growing
population and changing travel patterns?
o America’s population will grow by 70 million by 2045.
o By 2050, emerging megaregions could absorb 75 percent of the U.S. population; rural
populations are expected to continue declining.
o Population growth will be greatest in the South and West; existing infrastructure
might not be able to accommodate it.
o It is possible that Americans, particularly millennials, will continue reducing trips by
car in favor of more trips by transit and intercity passenger rail.
o In 2045 there will be nearly twice as many older Americans—thus, more people
needing quality transit connections to medical and other services.
 How will we move things? And reduce freight chokepoints that drive up the cost of owning a
o By 2045, freight volume will increase 45 percent.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Introduction
o Online shopping is driving up demand for small package home delivery, which could
soon substitute for many household shopping trips.
o Airline mergers and the consolidation of hubs may result in increased air traffic
o International trade balances, due in part to low U.S. energy costs, could shift from
imports toward exports, but overall globalization will increase both, straining ports
and border crossings.
o Strong domestic energy production may enable the U.S. to become a natural gas net
exporter by 2020, but pipeline capacity may hamper growth and lead to greater
movement of oil by rail.
 How will we move better? And knock down barriers to new technologies that promise to
make travel safer and more convenient?
o Technological changes and innovation may transform vehicles, infrastructure,
logistics, and the delivery of transportation services to promote efficiency and safety.
o New sources of travel data have the potential to improve travelers’ experience,
support more efficient management of transportation systems, and enhance
investment decisions.
o Automation and robotics will affect all modes of transportation, improving
infrastructure maintenance and travel safety, and enabling the mainstream use of
autonomous vehicles.
 How will we adapt? And make our infrastructure more resilient to events like Hurricane
o The effects of climate change will include global mean sea level rise, temperature
increases, and more frequent and intense storm events, all of which will impact
highways, bridges, public transportation, coastal ports and waterways.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Introduction
 How will we align decisions and dollars, and invest the trillions of dollars our transportation
system needs in the smartest way possible?
o Public revenues to support transportation are not keeping up with the rising costs of
maintenance and capacity expansion.
o Sixty-five percent of our roads are rated in less than good condition; a quarter of our
bridges need significant repair; 45 percent of Americans lack access to transit.
o The federal gas tax is no longer enough to address our transportation needs.
o Overall financing uncertainty, shortfalls in the Highway Trust Fund, and the absence
of reliable federal funding for rail, marine highways, and ports have created a need for
new financing mechanisms.
Beyond Traffic does not close the book on these questions. It opens the book wider, giving all of us
more and better data with which to answer them.
Our hope is, at the end of the day, Beyond Traffic provides Americans with a common basis of fact
for a larger national discussion about the future of transportation.
It’s a discussion we need to have. After all, since Lewis and Clark blazed a trail to the Pacific and
Lincoln linked our country with a railroad, transportation has been a national effort. No matter
what changes in the next 30 years, it will continue to be one.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Introduction
Report Organization
This report is structured in three parts.
The first part discusses the major trends shaping our changing transportation system. These
include both trends originating from the transportation sector, such as improvements in freight
logistics, and external trends impacting the transportation sector, such as population growth and
climate change.
The second part discusses the implications of these trends for each mode of transportation:
highways, transit, pedestrian and bicycle, aviation, intercity and freight rail, maritime and pipeline.
The third part presents a description of a baseline future scenario—a future that may emerge from
the trends analyzed previously. It concludes with a discussion of policy options based on the
implications of these trends.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Introduction
We can start the discussion by examining some of the most important
trends that will shape our future.
This report describes five major trends:
How We Move
This section describes demographic, economic, geographic, and cultural trends affecting
everyday travel. The focus is on the most common form of travel for most Americans: shortdistance trips by surface transportation.
How We Move Things
This section describes emerging challenges and opportunities in the freight sector. It
discusses how changes in the population, economy, and technology are affecting the
movement of cargo and energy.
How We Move Better
In this section, discussion focuses on how technological advances, many of which have
originated outside of the transportation sector and are now ready for implementation
within it, are affecting and will affect our transportation system.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Trends
How We Adapt
This section describes how the transportation system is contributing to, and may be
impacted by, climate change. It discusses how the transportation sector is finding ways to
limit greenhouse-gas emissions, as well as the challenges of developing a resilient
transportation system that can withstand the projected impacts of climate change, today
and in the future.
How We Align Decisions and Dollars
This section explains the evolving role of government in planning, building, managing, and
regulating the transportation system. It describes the financial challenges many
governments are facing and discusses how the role of government and the way
transportation is funded may change.
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Trends
How We Move
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Trends  How We Move
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Trends  How We Move
Our transportation system connects us to our work, our homes, and our friends and families. We
all have different needs, and different values, that we consider as we make transportation
decisions—but we all value the connections that our transportation system provides.
As our population grows and changes, our needs and preferences will also change. In fact, we are
already changing how we travel. For instance, the number of miles that we drive each year is no
longer increasing—reversing a decades-old trend. Many young Americans are choosing not to own
cars—some do not even seek driver’s licenses. Our growing population will necessarily lead to
increasing demand for travel overall, but it is conceivable that increasing congestion make travel so
inconvenient that many individuals will find ways to travel less.
This chapter examines some of the most important demographic and trends in everyday personal
travel that will shape our transportation network by 2045.
Demographics: Increasing Population
Over the past 30 years the American population has
increased 35 percent—from 230 million to 320 million.
As our nation grows, so does our demand for travel.
Today there are more people on the roads and in our
airports and rail stations than ever before.
Unfortunately, the capacity of our transportation
system has not kept up with our requirements. Many
roads and airports cannot accommodate the growing
demand for travel, leading to record levels of congestion
on our roads and frequent delays across our aviation
Beyond Traffic  Draft  Trends  How We Move
By 2045 our population is expected to increase by nearly 70 million. That is a slower growth rate
than previous decades, but it still means we will add more than the current population of New
York, Florida, and Texas, combined. Our growing population will lead to increasing overall demand
for travel even as increasing congestion could make travel …
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