Stage 4: BA & SR System Recommendation and Summary & Conclusion

Please take a look at the attachments. In the attachment stage 3, please add on stage 4 information. Please follow the format for Stage 4 attachment requirements. All information provided will aide in completing the assignment posted. Including information below regarding SaaS implementation. 
Differentiating Between Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software (COTS) and SaaS Solutions
Up to this point, we have been using the term commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) to include software-as-a-service (SaaS)  solutions. COTS is most-often used to refer to applications that are  purchased and installed at the user location, either on a personal  computer or on a server for multiple individuals to use. This includes  such familiar purchased software as word processing or spreadsheet  applications. Some COTS solutions come with vendor maintenance and  updates, while others require an additional payment to be made for an  upgraded version. Once the organization purchases a COTS solution, the  vendor’s involvement in the day-to-day operation is nonexistent.
A SaaS solution, on the other hand, is usually leased or  subscribed to by the customer, and the software is owned by the vendor,  runs on the vendor’s hardware, and is accessed via the internet as a  “service.”  Microsoft is now providing its office applications as a  service via Office 365 for Business, which is provided as a subscription  service rather than a purchased download. In that instance, it becomes a  SaaS application. Even though it is a COTS product, the way it is  delivered to the end user via the internet, along with ongoing service  and maintenance from the vendor, makes it a SaaS solution. Other  well-known SaaS products are SalesForce (customer relationships  management system), Amazon Web Services (eCommerce platform), and  DocuSign (electronic signature services). For SaaS solutions, the vendor  is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the system, for the  ongoing operation and maintenance of the system, for protecting the  sensitive business data housed in the system, for upgrading and  enhancing the system, and for providing training and support. Usually  all that is required at the customer location is an internet connection  and end-user devices to connect to the system.
Unique Considerations for Selecting a SaaS Solution
When a SaaS solution is being considered, a primary aspect is  that the relationship with the vendor is very different from a solution  that is hosted on-site at the organization. A long-term relationship is  established with the vendor beginning with the lease or subscription to  the system. The customer becomes reliant upon the vendor for all the  services listed above.
Since the system is not purchased (instead, the customers are  “renting” or “leasing” the software and services), the customer will  make monthly or annual payments for its use; these can either be a set  amount or can fluctuate depending on the actual use of the system. A  Service Level Agreement (SLA) is used to document the responsibilities  and commitments of the vendor and the customer. Most vendors of SaaS  solutions have an SLA already developed for their customers; this should  be studied thoroughly, and changes negotiated if necessary, prior to  the customer signing up for the services.
One big consideration is that the system is operated at the  vendor’s location. It is much more likely that a vendor supporting  multiple customers can achieve a higher level of security for the system  than an individual organization. The vendor has the combined resources  to hire and retain security experts to manage the system, the hardware,  the network, and the facility. Many SaaS vendors have implemented a  distributed system so that hardware, software, and databases are housed  at multiple locations; many vendors provide “hot backup” meaning that  the database is replicated elsewhere so that if one database or system  is unavailable, there is an automatic switch to the replicated database.  SaaS vendors also can afford to offer quick recovery at a much lower  cost than is available to an individual organization. They are also much  more likely to have physical security measures in place to protect the  data center, including fire suppression, surveillance, access security,  and guards.
Since SaaS solutions depend on use of the internet to connect  users to the application or system, the following should also be  considered:

the availability and speed of the internet connection;
protection of proprietary or personal information transmitted via the internet; and
location of the system. Some government systems are required to be hosted within the United States, and not overseas.

Identifying COTS/SaaS Solutions
Over the past decades, COTS and SaaS solutions have proven to  be viable models for acquiring software. SaaS is now a mature model  that can be relied upon if a vendor is selected based on a deliberate  evaluation and selection process. There are many sources for locating a  vendor, including technical journals, industry survey, vendor  advertisements, advisory or consultancy services, and even internet  searches.  An organization would be wise to identify a few solutions  that appear to meet their needs and then conduct a detailed evaluation  of each one. It is important to identify solutions that align with  achieving the business strategy, improve the process(es), and meet the  requirements.
Evaluating COTS/SaaS Solutions
In evaluating a COTS or SaaS solution, four major factors are  involved: user requirements, system performance requirements (system  quality and security requirements), the vendor, and cost. The method for  evaluating each of these is discussed below.
Most SaaS vendors provide access to a “free” trial version of  their system. During the product evaluation period, the trial version  can be used to determine the basic functionality and performance of the  system.  This version of the software is used for marketing purposes and  may not exactly represent how the software would function in a specific  situation. Some vendors may offer to provide access to a more robust  version of their system in order to allow further testing and  evaluation. An organization should try out the software for itself and  not rely on vendor demonstrations, which can be set up to appear to  provide functionality and ease of use that is actually not part of the  system.
User Requirements
The first step in evaluating a COTS/SaaS solution is to address the user requirements and answer the following questions:

How closely do the capabilities and functions of the solution meet the requirements?
Conversely,  are there a lot of extra “bells and whistles” that the organization  does not need or would not use, but add to the cost and complexity of  the system?
How closely does the application package fit the  process used by the organization? If the solution is implemented, would  the organization be able to use it for their process? Will the business  process need to change significantly, requiring additional training and  other organizational changes? Would the changes in the process used by  the vendor’s solution actually help improve the business process? The  more the business process has to adapt to the system, the less likely  the system is to be accepted by the users. If significant differences  exist between the system and the process in use, and major changes are  required to the off-the-shelf system, the cost, complexity, and risk may  well outweigh any benefits of the COTS solution. However, if the  organization is seeking to improve its business processes, COTS/SaaS  solutions often implement optimized business processes in the software, a  benefit for the organizations that implement them.
How much  configuration or customization will be needed to put the COTS system  into use?  Some COTS products allow or require extensive configuration  or customization in order to make the system useful to any organization.  Others require minimal configuration to set the system up for use in a  specific organization. These activities are major determinants of  initial cost and implementation time, and add to the ongoing maintenance  costs.  

Configuration is functionality that can be created using built-in workflow tools and templates that come with the product.
Customization  is functionality that is added to or replaces functionality as provided  by the vendor. There is no guarantee that customizations will be  compatible with future upgrades, and they can be extremely costly to  maintain over time.  

How much and what data will need to be migrated to the new  application/system? How easily can that be accomplished and at what  cost? The organization likely has information that supports the process  for which a system is being sought, and that information will most  likely need to be imported into the new system. If the data is already  in electronic form (in a spreadsheet or database), the migration of that  data should be accommodated. However, if data is in paper form,  decisions will need to be made about how much of the existing data is to  be manually entered into the system, and in what form it will be  entered.

Migrating data into a new system can be very time consuming  and costly, so these are important considerations for the organization.
System Performance Requirements
Next, the quality of the COTS/SaaS solution is evaluated  answering the following types of questions regarding the attributes of  the system (which are specified as system performance requirements):

Usability—Can new users quickly adapt to the software?  How easy is the system to use, and how is help provided for the users?  Does the vendor provide training? Is online help provided in the system?  Is user support provided (e.g., a help desk or documentation)?
Scalability—Can  the system accommodate the anticipated number of eventual users and/or  records/transactions? Can it be scaled back if there are actually fewer  users or transactions?
Availability—Will the system be  available for use when needed? If there is any anticipated maintenance  downtime, is that compatible with the organization’s needs?
Reliability—Does the system create and maintain the data correctly?  
Maintainability—What is the vendor’s approach to maintenance and how often are updates applied? How quickly can corrections be implemented?
Performance—Is  the system able to meet response time requirements? Is it able to  handle the volume of the expected workload (or number of transactions)?
Portability—Does  the system run or operate on the types of end-user devices and  operating systems that the organization uses or anticipates using?
Interoperability—Is the system capable of exchanging data with any required legacy (existing) system?  
Security—What  security protections are provided by the vendor? What security steps  are needed within the organization? How is the system protected from  malicious or accidental actions? How will users authenticate to the  system and be authorized to perform functions and/or access data? Does  the system effectively prevent unauthorized access and prevent  unauthorized ability to change data? How is data protected as it is  transmitted and when it is stored? Does the system keep a log of who  logged in, when they logged in, what information they accessed and what  changes they made?  What data backup and recovery is provided by the  vendor? The answers to these questions will help determine whether the  system provides adequate security.

Vendor Ability
The vendor’s ability to support the organization and provide  the services needed is a third area of consideration. The organization  should do its due diligence and consider the financial stability of the  vendor and look at such things as how long they have been in business,  how robust their customer support is, and their industry reputation. The  number of paying customers and the length of time they have been with  the SaaS vendor is a good indication of the quality of the software and  the vendor’s services. In evaluating a SaaS vendor, it is a good idea to  check with some of their customers to learn about their experience with  the SaaS. The organization needs to ensure the vendor will be able  support it for some time to come. Keep in mind that once the  organization signs up, the expectation is that there will be a long-term  relationship—the organization does not want to keep changing its SaaS  software and vendor, and the vendor will want to keep the organization  as a long-term customer providing recurring revenue. At the end of the  day, the organization is responsible for the use of the system as it  impacts their employees and customers. Although the vendor owns and  hosts the system, the reputation of the organization can be at risk if  issues arise and are not properly addressed.
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
The fourth area of consideration is the cost of the COTS/SaaS  solution. In determining how a system is to be acquired and/or which  system is to be acquired, the organization must consider the total cost  of ownership (TCO) of the solution. The TCO for each alternative can be  estimated in order to make comparisons. This concept is something we are  very familiar with when we are making a major purchase in our daily  lives. In general terms, the total cost of ownership (TCO) is the  sum of all costs associated with an acquisition that will accumulate  over the life of the asset. One of the personal acquisitions for which  we use the TCO is the purchase of a new car. Clearly, the purchase price  is not the only consideration. Today, automakers recognize the  importance of the TCO to their customers; in their advertising, they  talk about gas mileage, resale value, length of warranty, free servicing  over some period of time, and special financing terms.
The table below identifies the cost categories of an IT TCO.   Although there are several ways of categorizing and listing the costs,  this list contains some of the often overlooked and crucial costs that  are important to understand. The specifics of how the categories apply  to a SaaS solution are also provided.
    Cost Categories of an IT TCO Cost Categories Description Costs as Applied to SaaS Solution acquisition

 The costs of acquiring IT assets: the lease, purchase, or  subscription cost of hardware and software, including research, travel,  freight, and tax; and/or the cost of developing the software from  scratch.

Lease or subscription costs for software and system (SaaS vendor).
Purchase or lease of end-user hardware devices (PCs, tablets, printers, etc.).

 The cost of all communications, including network costs, wiring, service provider fees, communications hardware, and software.

 Initial setup costs of Internet Service Provider (ISP) and ongoing monthly charges.


 The costs of ensuring security of the IT infrastructure and data,  including security software, usage monitoring, and facility security  costs.

Most security services provided by vendor, documented in the SLA.
End-user policies and device protection are the responsibility of the customer organization.

 The costs of making IT assets operational; could include building  modifications, increased cooling requirements, and increased utility  capacity at the datacenter.

 Responsibility of the vendor.


 The costs associated with COTS or SaaS software to set it up to  function correctly within the organization; using built-in tools such as  workflow, report layout, terminology and/or organizational logo.

 Costs to configure SaaS to function for the organization (e.g., workflow, reports, terminology, logo).


 The costs of making changes to the COTS or SaaS software that are  unique to the organization. The ongoing cost of maintaining these  changes over time and testing future upgrades must be considered as  well.   

 Costs to make changes to the software for the specific customer; may cause additional cost for maintenance.


 The costs of preparing test cases and using the system to determine  whether it is functioning properly and meets the requirements. Also  includes the costs of recording deficiencies and re-testing when changes  are made.

 Costs generally are limited to the customer creating and using test  cases to ensure the system works as needed. This is very different from  using a demonstration or “free trial” system before selection; it is  testing the actual system after it is configured and is operational for  the customer.


 The cost of keeping the infrastructure functioning as planned; could  include a help desk, hardware technicians, telecommunications  specialists, programmers, and maintenance support staff.

 Most costs borne by vendor. There may be an additional charge for  user help-desk support or technical support, or it may be included in  the monthly/annual fee.


 The cost of keeping IT assets current and in a condition that can  meet their planned functions; includes updates and enhancements as well  as fixes for problems; could include maintenance contracts, programmers,  and telecommunications specialists.

 These costs are borne by the vendor. The customer pays a monthly/annual fee for ongoing service and system maintenance.

 coordination costs

 The costs related to keeping the infrastructure tuned to maintain  optimal performance when changes to an infrastructure element are  required

 These costs are borne by the vendor.

 disaster recovery

 The costs of ensuring continued operation of the infrastructure,  including maintenance of a current plan, cost of backup sites and  equipment, costs of emergency power, and costs of practice exercises.

 Most of these costs are borne by the vendor (if the vendor provides  disaster recovery services) since the vendor is responsible for its  hardware, software and internet access; but the organization is  responsible for its own infrastructure (end-user devices, internet  access, local power, etc.).

 organizational change management

 Any costs associated with organizational changes resulting from  implementation of the system; includes such things as consolidating  departments, establishing new groups or responsibilities, reorganizing  or reassigning personnel.

 Always a customer cost.

 data migration

 The costs of determining what existing data (either in electronic or  paper form) would need to be entered into the system to get started,  and entering that data.

The customer must bear the cost of determining what existing data (electronic or paper) is to be entered into the system.
The cost of entering the data is borne by the customer; sometimes the vendor is willing to assist for a fee.
SaaS solutions generally offer many of these categories of  service as part of their initial fee and/or the ongoing maintenance fee.  All must be taken into consideration when developing the TCO.
Making the Selection
In the end, a cost-benefit analysis can be used to determine  which solution best meets the needs of the organization. All four  factors discussed above must be considered, with the organization  determining which of them is most important or which combination of the  factors best suits that organization, considering any specific needs,  such as security of highly sensitive data, particular functionality that  must be present, controlling costs, etc.
Implementing the System
Implementation of a COTS or a SaaS solution is a major  project for the organization. A system owner and a project team should  be designated, and best practices for IT project management should be  employed. A project plan for implementing a SaaS solution should include  the following steps:

Establish the vendor agreement, contract or SLA; a mechanism  needs to be put in place to give the organization access to the system,  identify responsibilities of the vendor and the customer, and lay out  initial and ongoing costs.
Acquire the end-user hardware and  telecommunications, if necessary, and/or validate the capability of  existing hardware and telecommunications to access and use the system.
Configure  the system for use in the organization; identify what needs to be done  to implement the organization’s desired workflow, reports, terminology,  logo, etc.; identify who will configure the system and how it will be  done, and whether there is any additional cost.
Develop a plan  for User Acceptance Testing (UAT), and test the configured system to  ensure requirements are met and that it is functioning correctly,  including use of any user support tools or services provided. The UAT  plan explains how each requirement will be specifically tested to ensure  it is working properly and the requirement is met. For example, if the  requirement is that the system determine the customer’s city and state  based on the zip code entered, then a zip code would be entered into the  system and the result would be checked to ensure the correct city and  state were provided.
Apprise the employees of what is taking  place and why, and make any organizational or process changes that are  needed. Leaders of the organization need to be involved as sponsors and  coaches to encourage system adoption and use, and they should employ  change management techniques to ensure a smooth transition.
Train administrative personnel in their role(s) for supporting the system.
Conduct user training.
Migrate  the data needed to operate the system; determine how this will be done  (electronically, manually, etc.), who will do it, how long it will take,  and what it will cost.
Oversee operations to ensure continued  end-user support and system maintenance are performed by the vendor  according to the SLA; identify any need for support or maintenance by  the organization itself, such as hardware and software upgrade for  end-user devices, a local help desk, etc.

Using a comprehensive project plan as laid out above will  help ensure a successful implementation and ongoing support for the new  system.

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